2. Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2016
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies||
The interim condensed financial statements included herein, presented in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles and stated in US dollars, have been prepared by the Company, without audit, pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations, although the Company believes that the disclosures are adequate to not make the information presented misleading.
These statements reflect all adjustments, which in the opinion of management, are necessary for fair presentation of the information contained therein. Except as otherwise disclosed, all such adjustments are of a normal recurring nature. It is suggested that these interim condensed financial statements be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2015, which were included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K. The Company follows the same accounting policies in the preparation of interim reports.
In the current year, the Company classified assets and liabilities subject to our restructuring transaction outlined in Note 4 – Restructuring as assets and liabilities from discontinued operations in the balance sheet and income, expense and cash flows from the restructured operations are shown as net income and cash flows from discontinued operations. For comparative purposes, amounts in the prior periods have been reclassified to conform to current year presentation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
The oil and gas industry is subject, by its nature, to environmental hazards and clean-up costs. At this time, management knows of no substantial losses from environmental accidents or events which would have a material effect on the Company.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash equivalents include money market accounts which have maturities of three months or less. For the purpose of the statements of cash flows, all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less are considered to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are stated at cost plus accrued interest, which approximates market value. No cash equivalents were on hand at September 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015.
Cash in Excess of FDIC Insured Limits
The Company maintains its cash in bank deposit accounts which, at times, may exceed federally insured limits. Accounts are guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and the Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC) up to $250,000 and $500,000, respectively, under current regulations. The Company had approximately $-0- and $-0- in excess of FDIC and SIPC insured limits at September 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015, respectively. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts.
Advances to Operators
The Company participates in the drilling of crude oil and natural gas wells with other working interest partners. Due to the capital intensive nature of crude oil and natural gas drilling activities, the working interest partner responsible for conducting the drilling operations may request advance payments from other working interest partners for their share of the costs. The Company expects such advances to be applied by working interest partners against joint interest billings for its share of the drilling operations within 120 days from when the advance is paid.
Debt Issuance Costs
Costs relating to obtaining our revolving credit facilities are capitalized and amortized over the term of the related debt using the straight-line method. The unamortized balance of debt issuance costs at September 30, 2016, and December 31, 2015, was $-0-. Amortization of debt issuance costs charged to interest expense were $-0- and $287,227 for the nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively. Interest expense related to debt issuance costs is reflected as part of loss from discontinued operations on the statement of operations. When a loan is paid in full or becomes due on demand due to a default on the loan any unamortized financing costs are removed from the related accounts and charged to interest expense.
Website Development Costs
The Company accounts for website development costs in accordance with ASC 350-50, “Accounting for Website Development Costs” (“ASC 350-50”), wherein website development costs are segregated into three activities:
We have capitalized a total of $56,660 of website development costs from inception through September 30, 2016. We depreciate our website development costs on a straight line basis over the estimated useful life of the assets, which is currently three years. We have recognized depreciation expense on these website costs of $-0- and $257 for the nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively. As of September 30, 2016, all website development costs have been fully depreciated.
The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities based on differences between the financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities using the enacted tax rates and laws that are expected to be in effect when the differences are expected to be recovered. The Company provides a valuation allowance for deferred tax assets for which it does not consider realization of such assets to be more likely than not.
Basic and Diluted Loss Per Share
The basic net loss per share is computed by dividing the net loss (the numerator) by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period (the denominator). Diluted net loss per common share is computed by dividing the net loss by the weighted average number of common shares and potential common shares outstanding (if dilutive) during each period. Potential common shares include stock options, warrants and restricted stock. The number of potential common shares outstanding relating to stock options, warrants and restricted stock is computed using the treasury stock method.
The reconciliation of the denominators used to calculate basic EPS and diluted EPS for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015 are as follows:
Stock options and warrants excluded from the calculation of diluted EPS because their effect was anti-dilutive were 7,043,500 and 15,757,209 for the three months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively, and 6,906,500 and 15,757,209 for the nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Under FASB ASC 820-10-05, the Financial Accounting Standards Board establishes a framework for measuring fair value in generally accepted accounting principles and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. This Statement reaffirms that fair value is the relevant measurement attribute. The adoption of this standard did not have a material effect on the Company’s financial statements as reflected herein. The carrying amounts of cash, accounts payable and accrued expenses reported on the balance sheets are estimated by management to approximate fair value primarily due to the short term nature of the instruments. The Company had no items that required fair value measurement on a recurring basis.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment that are not oil and gas properties are recorded at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives of three to seven years. Expenditures for replacements, renewals, and betterments are capitalized. Maintenance and repairs are charged to operations as incurred. Long-lived assets, other than oil and gas properties, are evaluated for impairment to determine if current circumstances and market conditions indicate the carrying amount may not be recoverable. The Company has not recognized any impairment losses on non-oil and gas long-lived assets. Depreciation expense was $10,848 and $12,286 for the nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
The Company recognizes oil and gas revenues from its interests in producing wells when production is delivered to, and title has transferred to, the purchaser and to the extent the selling price is reasonably determinable. The Company uses the sales method of accounting for gas balancing of gas production and would recognize a liability if the existing proven reserves were not adequate to cover an imbalance situation. Oil and gas revenues are reflected as part of discontinued operations on the statement of operations.
Asset Retirement Obligations
The Company records the fair value of a liability for an asset retirement obligation in the period in which the well is spud or the asset is acquired and a corresponding increase in the carrying amount of the related long-lived asset. The liability is accreted to its present value each period, and the capitalized cost is depreciated over the useful life of the related asset. If the liability is settled for an amount other than the recorded amount, a gain or loss is recognized. The capitalized cost and asset retirement obligation as of December 31, 2015 and the expense related to accretion of the discount on the asset retirement liability are reflected as part of discontinued operations on the balance sheet and statement of operations.
Full Cost Method
The Company follows the full cost method of accounting for oil and gas operations whereby all costs related to the exploration and development of oil and gas properties are initially capitalized into a single cost center ("full cost pool"). Such costs include land acquisition costs, geological and geophysical expenses, carrying charges on non-producing properties, costs of drilling directly related to acquisition, and exploration activities. Internal costs that are capitalized are directly attributable to acquisition, exploration and development activities and do not include costs related to the production, general corporate overhead or similar activities. Costs associated with production and general corporate activities are expensed in the period incurred. Capitalized costs are summarized as follows for the nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively:
Proceeds from sales of proved properties will generally be credited to the full cost pool, with no gain or loss recognized, unless such a sale would significantly alter the relationship between capitalized costs and the proved reserves attributable to these costs. A significant alteration would typically involve a sale of 20% or more of the proved reserves related to a single full cost pool. The Company assesses all items classified as unevaluated property on a quarterly basis for possible impairment or reduction in value. The assessment includes consideration of the following factors, among others: intent to drill; remaining lease term; geological and geophysical evaluations; drilling results and activity; the assignment of proved reserves; and the economic viability of development if proved reserves are assigned. During any period in which these factors indicate an impairment, the cumulative drilling costs incurred to date for such property and all or a portion of the associated leasehold costs are transferred to the full cost pool and are then subject to amortization.
Capitalized costs associated with impaired properties and properties having proved reserves, estimated future development costs, and asset retirement costs under FASB ASC 410-20-25 are depleted and amortized on the unit-of-production method based on the estimated gross proved reserves as determined by independent petroleum engineers. The costs of unproved properties are withheld from the depletion base until such time as they are either developed or abandoned.
Capitalized costs of oil and gas properties (net of related deferred income taxes) may not exceed an amount equal to the present value, discounted at 10% per annum, of the estimated future net cash flows from proved oil and gas reserves plus the cost of unproved properties (adjusted for related income tax effects). Should capitalized costs exceed this ceiling, impairment is recognized. The present value of estimated future net cash flows is computed by applying the arithmetic average first day price of oil and natural gas for the preceding twelve months to estimated future production of proved oil and gas reserves as of the end of the period, less estimated future expenditures to be incurred in developing and producing the proved reserves and assuming continuation of existing economic conditions. Such present value of proved reserves' future net cash flows excludes future cash outflows associated with settling asset retirement obligations. Should this comparison indicate an excess carrying value, the excess is charged to earnings as an impairment expense.
As a result of currently prevailing low commodity prices and their effect on the proved reserve values of properties throughout 2015 and 2016, we recorded non-cash ceiling test impairments of $5,219,000 and $52,634,000 for the nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively. The impairment charges affected our reported net income but did not reduce our cash flow. The impairment charges are reflected as part of discontinued operations on the statement of operations.
The Company adopted FASB guidance on stock based compensation upon inception at April 9, 2010. Under FASB ASC 718-10-30-2, all share-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options, are recognized in the income statement based on their fair values. Expense related to common stock and stock options issued for services and compensation totaled $473,472 and $465,876 for the nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively, using the Black-Scholes options pricing model and an effective term of 6 to 6.5 years based on the weighted average of the vesting periods and the stated term of the option grants and the discount rate on 5 to 7 year U.S. Treasury securities at the grant date. In addition, $-0- and $484,012 of warrant related debt discounts were amortized during the nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively, and treated as interest expense and reflected as part of discontinued operations on the statement of operation. The fair value of warrants is determined similar to the method used in determining the fair value of employee stock options and the fair value is amortized over the life of the related credit facility and accelerated in the event of termination of the related credit facility or if the related credit facility becomes payable on demand due to a default on the related credit facility. The amortization of the debt discount attributable to the warrants was accelerated in 2015 to fully amortize the discount as of December 31, 2015 when the related debt became payable on demand due to a default on the related debt. As part of the debt restructuring all related warrants were retired and cancelled.
Uncertain Tax Positions
Effective upon inception at April 9, 2010, the Company adopted standards for accounting for uncertainty in income taxes. These standards prescribe a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. These standards also provide guidance on de-recognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure, and transition.
Various taxing authorities may periodically audit the Company’s income tax returns. These audits include questions regarding the Company’s tax filing positions, including the timing and amount of deductions and the allocation of income to various tax jurisdictions. In evaluating the exposures connected with these various tax filing positions, including state and local taxes, the Company records allowances for probable exposures. A number of years may elapse before a particular matter, for which an allowance has been established, is audited and fully resolved. Black Ridge Oil & Gas, Inc. has not yet undergone an examination by any taxing authorities.
The assessment of the Company’s tax position relies on the judgment of management to estimate the exposures associated with the Company’s various filing positions.
Derivative Instruments and Price Risk Management
While operating its oil and gas business, the Company entered into derivative contracts, including price swaps, caps and floors, which required payments to (or receipts from) counterparties based on the differential between a fixed price and a variable price for a fixed quantity of crude oil without the exchange of underlying volumes. The notional amounts of these financial instruments were based on a portion of the expected production from existing wells.
Realized gains and losses were recorded to gain (loss) on settled derivatives and unrealized gains or losses as a result of mark-to market valuations were recorded to gain (loss) on the mark-to-market of derivatives and are presented as a part of discontinued operations on the statement of operations.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
New accounting pronouncements are issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) that are adopted by the Company as of the specified effective date. If not discussed below, management believes there have been no developments to recently issued accounting standards, including expected dates of adoption and estimated effects on our financial statements, from those disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015.
In August, 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments (a consensus of the Emerging Issues Task Force). Effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. If an entity early adopts the amendments in an interim period, any adjustments should be reflected as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes that interim period. An entity that elects early adoption must adopt all of the amendments in the same period. The Company is currently evaluating the method of adoption and impact this standard will have on its financial statements and related disclosures.
In March, 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting. For public business entities, the amendments are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted for any entity in any interim or annual period. If an entity early adopts the amendments in an interim period, any adjustments should be reflected as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes that interim period. An entity that elects early adoption must adopt all of the amendments in the same period. The Company is currently evaluating the method of adoption and impact this standard will have on its financial statements and related disclosures.
In March, 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-06, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Contingent Put and Call Options in Debt Instruments (a consensus of the Emerging Issues Task Force). For public business entities, the amendments are effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those fiscal years. For entities other than public business entities, the amendments are effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. If an entity early adopts the amendments in an interim period, any adjustments should be reflected as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes that interim period. The Company is currently evaluating the method of adoption and impact this standard will have on its financial statements and related disclosures.
In March, 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-05, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Effect of Derivative Contract Novations on Existing Hedge Accounting Relationships (a consensus of the Emerging Issues Task Force). For public business entities, the amendments are effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those fiscal years. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The Company is currently evaluating the method of adoption and impact this standard will have on its financial statements and related disclosures.
Disclosure of accounting policy for basis of accounting, or basis of presentation, used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS).
No definition available.