Table of Contents


United States
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT
PURSUANT TO SECTIONS 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
(Mark One)
ý
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015
OR
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission file number 1-12289
SEACOR Holdings Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Delaware
 
13-3542736
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
2200 Eller Drive, P.O. Box 13038,
Fort Lauderdale, Florida
 
33316
(Address of Principal Executive Office)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code (954) 523-2200
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, par value $.01 per share
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
(Title of Class)
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. ý  Yes    ¨  No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. ¨  Yes    ý  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. ý  Yes    ¨  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). ý  Yes    ¨  No
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer  x
 
Accelerated filer ¨
 
Non-accelerated filer ¨
(Do not check if a smaller
reporting company)
 
Smaller reporting company ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). ¨  Yes    ý  No
The aggregate market value of the voting stock of the registrant held by non-affiliates as of June 30, 2015 was approximately $1,171,352,625 based on the closing price on the New York Stock Exchange on such date. The total number of shares of Common Stock issued and outstanding as of February 23, 2016 was 17,166,233.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2016 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days after the end of the Registrant’s last fiscal year is incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.



Table of Contents

SEACOR HOLDINGS INC.
FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
PART I
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 1A.
 
 
 
Item 1B.
 
 
 
Item 2.
 
 
 
Item 3.
 
 
 
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 6.
 
 
 

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Item 7.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 7A.
 
 
 
Item 8.
 
 
 
Item 9.
 
 
 
Item 9A.
 
 
 
Item 9B.
 
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
 
 
Item 10.
 
 
 
Item 11.
 
 
 
Item 12.
 
 
 
Item 13.
 
 
 
Item 14.
 
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
 
 
Item 15.

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Certain statements discussed in Item 1 (Business), Item 1A (Risk Factors), Item 3 (Legal Proceedings), Item 7 (Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations), Item 7A (Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk) and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as well as in other materials and oral statements that the Company releases from time to time to the public constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such forward-looking statements concerning management’s expectations, strategic objectives, business prospects, anticipated economic performance and financial condition and other similar matters involve significant known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause the actual results, performance or achievements of results to differ materially from any future results, performance or achievements discussed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Such risks, uncertainties and other important factors are discussed in Item 1A (Risk Factors)and Item 7 Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. In addition, these statements constitute the Company’s cautionary statements under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. It should be understood that it is not possible to predict or identify all such factors. Consequently, the following should not be considered to be a complete discussion of all potential risks or uncertainties. The words “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “project,” “intend,” “believe,” “plan,” “target,” “forecast” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of the document in which they are made. The Company disclaims any obligation or undertaking to provide any updates or revisions to any forward-looking statement to reflect any change in the Company’s expectations or any change in events, conditions or circumstances on which the forward-looking statement is based. It is advisable, however, to consult any further disclosures the Company makes on related subjects in its Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
PART I
ITEM 1.    BUSINESS
General
Unless the context indicates otherwise, the terms “we,” “our,” “ours,” “us” and the “Company” refer to SEACOR Holdings Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries. “SEACOR” refers to SEACOR Holdings Inc., incorporated in 1989 in Delaware. “Common Stock” refers to the common stock, par value $.01 per share, of SEACOR. The Company’s fiscal year ended on December 31, 2015.
SEACOR’s principal executive office is located at 2200 Eller Drive, P.O. Box 13038, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33316, and its telephone number is (954) 523-2200. SEACOR’s website address is www.seacorholdings.com. The reference to SEACOR’s website is not intended to incorporate the information on the website into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The Company’s Corporate Governance documents, including the Board of Directors’ Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee charters are available, free of charge, on SEACOR’s website or in print for stockholders.
All of the Company’s periodic reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, are available, free of charge, on SEACOR’s website, including its Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports. These reports and amendments are available on SEACOR’s website as soon as reasonably practicable after the Company electronically files the reports or amendments with the SEC. They are also available at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Information as to the operation of the SEC’s Public Reference Room can be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains a website (www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information.
Segment and Geographic Information
SEACOR and its subsidiaries are in the business of owning, operating, investing in and marketing equipment, primarily in the offshore oil and gas, shipping and logistics industries. The Company conducts its activities in the following reporting segments:
Offshore Marine Services
Inland River Services
Shipping Services
Illinois Corn Processing
Other

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Potential Spin-off of Offshore Marine Services
On December 1, 2015, SEACOR Marine Holdings Inc. (“SMH”), a subsidiary of SEACOR that is the parent company of the Offshore Marine Services business segment, issued $175.0 million aggregate principal amount of its 3.75% Convertible Senior Notes due December 1, 2022 to investment funds managed and controlled by The Carlyle Group. The transaction contemplates the potential separation of SMH from the Company via a spin-off of SMH to SEACOR's shareholders (the "SMH Spin-off"). The Company is still considering whether or not to effect a SMH Spin-off and is under no obligation to do so. SEACOR continues to provide Offshore Marine Services administrative services and support business development initiatives and, if the SMH Spin-off were to occur, would likely continue to do so during a transition period for some time after a SMH Spin-off.
Discontinued Operations
On March 16, 2012, the Company sold SEACOR Environmental Services Inc. ("SES") to J.F. Lehman & Company ("JFL"), a leading middle-market private equity firm (the "SES Business Transaction"). SES included National Response Corporation ("NRC"), a provider of oil spill response services in the United States; NRC Environmental Services Inc., a provider of environmental and industrial services on the West Coast of the United States; SEACOR Response Ltd., a provider of oil spill response and emergency response services to customers in international markets; and certain other subsidiaries (collectively the “SES Business”). For all periods presented herein, the Company has reported the historical financial position, results of operations and cash flows of the SES Business as discontinued operations.
On December 31, 2012, the Company sold SEACOR Energy Inc. ("SEI"), its energy commodity and logistics business, to Par Petroleum Corporation. For all periods presented herein, the Company has reported the historical financial position, results of operations and cash flows of SEI as discontinued operations.
On January 31, 2013, the Company completed the spin-off (the "Era Spin-off") of Era Group Inc. ("Era Group"), the company that operated SEACOR's Aviation Services business segment, by means of a dividend to SEACOR's stockholders of all the issued and outstanding common stock of Era Group. Era Group filed a Registration Statement on Form 10 with the SEC that was declared effective on January 14, 2013. Era Group is an independent company whose common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "ERA." For all periods presented herein, the Company has reported the historical financial position, results of operations and cash flows of Era Group as discontinued operations.
Offshore Marine Services
Business
Offshore Marine Services operates a diverse fleet of support vessels primarily servicing offshore oil and gas exploration, development and production facilities worldwide. The vessels deliver cargo and personnel to offshore installations; handle anchors and mooring equipment required to tether rigs to the seabed; tow rigs and assist in placing them on location and moving them between regions; and carry and launch equipment such as remote operated vehicles or “ROVs” used underwater in drilling and well installation, maintenance, and repair. In addition, Offshore Marine Services' vessels provide accommodations for technicians and specialists, and provide standby safety support and emergency response services. Offshore Marine Services also operates a fleet of lift boats in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico supporting well intervention, work-over, decommissioning and diving operations. In non-oil and gas industry activity, Offshore Marine Services operates vessels primarily used to move personnel and supplies to offshore wind farms in Europe. Offshore Marine Services contributed 35%, 40% and 45% of consolidated operating revenues in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
For a discussion of risk and economic factors that may impact Offshore Marine Services' financial position and its results of operations, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and "Offshore Marine Services" in "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations."

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Equipment and Services
The following tables identify the types of vessels that comprise Offshore Marine Services’ fleet as of December 31 for the indicated years. “Owned” are majority owned and controlled by the Company. “Joint Ventured” are owned by entities in which the Company does not have a controlling interest. “Leased-in” may either be vessels contracted from leasing companies to which the Company may have sold such vessels or vessels chartered-in from other third party owners. “Pooled” are owned by entities not affiliated with Offshore Marine Services with the revenues or results of operations of these vessels being shared with the revenues or results of operations of certain vessels of similar type owned by Offshore Marine Services based upon an agreed formula. “Managed” are owned by entities not affiliated with the Company but operated by Offshore Marine Services for a fee.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Owned Fleet
 
 
Owned
 
Joint
Ventured
 
Leased-in
 
Pooled or
Managed
 
Total
 
Average
Age
 
U.S.-
Flag
 
Foreign-
Flag
2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anchor handling towing supply
 
13

 
1

 
4

 

 
18

 
15

 
9

 
4

Fast support
 
23

 
7

 
1

 
3

 
34

 
10

 
8

 
15

Mini-supply
 
4

 
2

 

 
1

 
7

 
15

 

 
4

Standby safety
 
24

 
1

 

 

 
25

 
35

 

 
24

Supply
 
7

 
12

 
2

 
3

 
24

 
14

 
2

 
5

Towing supply
 
2

 
1

 

 

 
3

 
13

 

 
2

Specialty
 
3

 
5

 

 
1

 
9

 
20

 

 
3

Liftboats
 
13

 

 
2

 

 
15

 
13

 
13

 

Wind farm utility
 
35

 
3

 

 

 
38

 
7

 

 
35

 
 
124

 
32

 
9

 
8

 
173

 
15

 
32

 
92

2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anchor handling towing supply
 
13

 
1

 
4

 

 
18

 
14

 
9

 
4

Fast support
 
21

 
7

 
4

 
3

 
35

 
11

 
7

 
14

Mini-supply
 
4

 
2

 

 
1

 
7

 
14

 

 
4

Standby safety
 
24

 
1

 

 

 
25

 
34

 

 
24

Supply
 
7

 
9

 
6

 
3

 
25

 
13

 
2

 
5

Towing supply
 
2

 
1

 

 

 
3

 
12

 

 
2

Specialty
 
3

 
5

 

 
1

 
9

 
19

 
1

 
2

Liftboats
 
13

 

 
2

 

 
15

 
12

 
13

 

Wind farm utility
 
33

 
3

 

 

 
36

 
6

 

 
33

 
 
120

 
29

 
16

 
8

 
173

 
15


32

 
88

2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anchor handling towing supply
 
14

 
1

 
3

 

 
18

 
13

 
11

 
3

Fast support
 
25

 
7

 
7

 
3

 
42

 
12

 
10

 
15

Mini-supply
 
4

 
2

 
2

 

 
8

 
13

 

 
4

Standby safety
 
24

 
1

 

 

 
25

 
33

 

 
24

Supply
 
9

 
5

 
9

 
4

 
27

 
11

 
4

 
5

Towing supply
 
2

 
1

 

 

 
3

 
11

 

 
2

Specialty
 
3

 
5

 

 
4

 
12

 
18

 
1

 
2

Liftboats
 
14

 

 
1

 

 
15

 
11

 
14

 

Wind farm utility
 
32

 
2

 

 

 
34

 
5

 

 
32

 
 
127

 
24

 
22

 
11

 
184

 
14

 
40

 
87

Anchor handling towing supply (“AHTS”) vessels are used primarily to support offshore drilling activities in the towing, positioning and mooring of drilling rigs and other marine equipment. AHTS vessels are also used to carry and launch equipment such as ROVs used underwater in drilling and well installation, maintenance, and repair and transport supplies and equipment from shore bases to offshore drilling rigs, platforms and other installations. The defining characteristics of AHTS vessels are horsepower (“bhp”), size of winch in terms of “line pull” and wire storage capacity. Offshore Marine Services’ fleet of AHTS vessels has varying capabilities and supports offshore mooring activities in water depths ranging from 300 to 8,000 feet. Most modern AHTS vessels are equipped with dynamic positioning ("DP") systems1 to enable them to maintain a fixed position in close

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proximity to a rig or platform. As of December 31, 2015, eight of the 13 owned AHTS vessels were equipped with DP-2 and two were equipped with DP.
Fast support vessels ("FSVs") are used primarily to move cargo and personnel to and from offshore drilling rigs, platforms and other installations. They range from 130 to 210 feet in length, are capable of speeds between 25 and 35 knots and have enhanced cargo carrying capacities enabling them to support both drilling operations and production services. Newer FSVs support deepwater drilling and production and are equipped with DP-2, firefighting equipment and ride control systems for greater comfort and performance. As of December 31, 2015, ten of the 23 owned FSVs were equipped with DP-2 and five were equipped with DP.
Mini-supply vessels are approximately 145 to 165 feet in length and typically carry deck cargo, liquid mud, methanol, diesel fuel and water. These vessels are typically used to support construction projects, maintenance work, certain drilling support activities and production support. In this vessel class, the new generation of vessels is also equipped with DP capability. As of December 31, 2015, three of the four owned mini-supply vessels were equipped with DP.
Standby safety vessels typically remain on location proximate to offshore rigs and production facilities to respond to emergencies. These vessels carry special equipment to rescue personnel and are equipped to provide first aid and shelter. These vessels sometimes perform a dual role, also functioning as supply vessels.
Supply vessels and towing supply vessels are generally more than 200 feet in length and are used to deliver cargo to rigs and platforms where drilling and work-over activity is underway or to support construction work by delivering pipe to vessels performing underwater installations. Supply vessels are distinguished from other vessels by the total carrying capacity (expressed as deadweight: “dwt”), available area of clear deck space, below-deck capacity for storage of mud and cement used in the drilling process and tank storage for water and fuel oil. Larger supply vessels usually have deck fittings to assist in handling cargo and are often fitted with a crane. The ability to hold station in open water and moderately rough seas is a key factor in differentiating supply vessels. To improve station keeping ability, most modern supply vessels have DP capabilities. Accommodations are also an important feature of supply vessels. As drilling becomes more complex, supply vessels often house third-parties who are specialists in various phases of the drilling process. Towing supply vessels perform similar cargo delivery functions to those handled by supply vessels. They are, however, equipped with more powerful engines (4,000 – 8,000 bhp) and winches, giving them the added capability to perform general towing functions, buoy setting and limited anchor handling work. As of December 31, 2015, four of the nine owned supply and towing supply vessels were equipped with DP-2 and one was equipped with DP.
Specialty vessels include anchor handling tugs, accommodation, line handling and other vessels. These vessels generally have specialized features adapting them to specific applications including offshore maintenance and construction services, freight hauling services and accommodation services.
Liftboats provide a self-propelled, stable platform to perform production platform construction, inspection, maintenance and removal; well intervention and work-over; well plug and abandonment; pipeline installation and maintenance; and diving operations. Liftboats are categorized by the length of their jacking legs (160 ft. to 265 ft. for the Company's liftboats), which determines the water depth in which these vessels can work. Secondary features are crane lifting capacity and reach, clear deck area, electrical generating power and accommodation capacity.
Wind farm utility vessels are used primarily to move personnel and supplies to offshore wind farms. There are two main types of vessels; Windcats and Windspeeds. The Windcat series feature a catamaran hull with flush foredeck, providing a stable platform from which personnel can safely transfer to turbine towers, and are capable of speeds between 25 and 31 knots. The Windspeed series are rapid response vessels with a maximum speed of 38 knots, which are used for light work during the construction and operational periods of offshore wind farms. All the wind farm utility vessels have been built since 2004.
As of December 31, 2015, in addition to its existing fleet, Offshore Marine Services had new construction projects in progress including seven U.S.-flag, DP-2 fast support vessels scheduled for delivery between the second quarter of 2016 and the first quarter of 2019; four U.S.-flag, DP-2 supply vessels for delivery between the second quarter of 2016 and first quarter of 2019, two of which are to be sold upon delivery to Mantenimiento Express Maritimo, S.A.P.I. de C.V., a 50% or less owned company; two foreign-flag specialty vessels scheduled for delivery during 2017; and three foreign-flag wind farm utility vessels scheduled for delivery during 2016.


______________________
1

The most technologically advanced DP systems have enhanced redundancy in the vessel’s power, electrical, computer and reference systems enabling vessels to maintain accurate position-keeping even in the event of failure of one of those systems (“DP-2”) and, in some cases, additionally in the event of fire and flood (“DP-3”).

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Markets
Offshore Marine Services operates vessels in six principal geographic regions. From time to time, vessels are relocated between these regions to meet customer demand for equipment. The table below sets forth vessel types by geographic market as of December 31 for the indicated years. Offshore Marine Services sometimes participates in joint venture arrangements in certain geographical locations in order to enhance marketing capabilities and facilitate operations in certain foreign markets allowing for the expansion of its fleet and operations while diversifying risks and reducing capital outlays associated with such expansion.
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
United States, primarily U.S. Gulf of Mexico:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anchor handling towing supply
 
9

 
8

 
8

Fast support
 
8

 
10

 
16

Mini-supply
 
1

 
1

 
2

Supply
 
8

 
8

 
12

Specialty
 

 
1

 
1

Liftboats
 
15

 
15

 
15

 
 
41

 
43

 
54

Africa, primarily West Africa:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anchor handling towing supply
 
5

 
5

 
5

Fast support
 
9

 
9

 
8

Mini-supply
 
2

 
2

 
2

Supply
 
3

 
5

 
3

Towing supply
 

 
1

 
2

Specialty
 
3

 
3

 
3

 
 
22

 
25

 
23

Middle East:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anchor handling towing supply
 
1

 
1

 
1

Fast support
 
10

 
7

 
7

Mini-supply
 
2

 
2

 
2

Supply
 
2

 
2

 
3

Towing-supply
 
2

 
1

 

Specialty
 
5

 
4

 
4

Wind farm utility
 
1

 
1

 

 
 
23

 
18

 
17

Brazil, Mexico, Central and South America:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anchor handling towing supply
 
2

 
3

 
3

Fast support
 
5

 
5

 
7

Mini-supply
 
2

 
2

 
2

Supply
 
10

 
9

 
8

Specialty
 

 

 
3

 
 
19

 
19

 
23

Europe, primarily North Sea:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Standby safety
 
25

 
25

 
25

Wind farm utility
 
37

 
35

 
34

 
 
62

 
60

 
59

Asia:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anchor handling towing supply
 
1

 
1

 
1

Fast support
 
2

 
4

 
4

Supply
 
1

 
1

 
1

Towing Supply
 
1

 
1

 
1

Specialty
 
1

 
1

 
1

 
 
6

 
8

 
8

Total Foreign Fleet
 
132

 
130

 
130

Total Fleet
 
173

 
173

 
184


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United States, primarily U.S. Gulf of Mexico. As of December 31, 2015, 41 vessels were operating in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, including 27 owned, six leased-in, five joint ventured, two pooled and one managed. Offshore Marine Services’ vessels in this market support deepwater anchor handling with its fleet of AHTS vessels, fast cargo transport with its fleet of FSVs, general cargo transport with its platform supply vessels, and its fleet of liftboats supporting well intervention, work-over, decommissioning and diving operations.
Africa, primarily West Africa. As of December 31, 2015, 22 vessels were operating in West Africa, including 13 owned, two leased-in, four joint ventured, one pooled and two managed. Offshore Marine Services' vessels operating in this area generally support large-scale, multi-year projects for major oil companies, primarily in Angola and Ghana. The other vessels in this region operate from ports in the Republic of the Congo and Gabon.
Middle East. As of December 31, 2015, 23 vessels were operating in the Middle East region, including 17 owned, four joint ventured and two managed. Offshore Marine Services’ vessels operating in this area generally support activities in Azerbaijan, Egypt and countries along the Arabian Gulf and Arabian Sea, including the United Arab Emirates and Qatar.
Brazil, Mexico, Central and South America. As of December 31, 2015, 17 vessels were operating in Mexico, including three owned, one leased-in and 13 joint ventured through the Company's 49% noncontrolling interest in Mantenimiento Express Maritimo, S.A.P.I. de C.V. (“MexMar”). These vessels, consisting of a fleet of FSVs and platform supply and anchor handling towing supply vessels, provide support for exploration and production activities in Mexico with a focus on ultra-deep water. In addition, two owned vessels were operating in Brazil.
Europe, primarily North Sea. As of December 31, 2015, 25 vessels were operating in the North Sea providing standby safety and supply services, including 24 owned and one joint ventured. Demand for standby services developed in 1991 after the United Kingdom passed legislation requiring offshore operators to maintain higher specification standby safety vessels. The legislation requires a vessel to “stand by” to provide a means of evacuation and rescue for platform and rig personnel in the event of an emergency at an offshore installation. In addition, through a 75% controlling interest in the wind farm utility fleet, 37 vessels were operating in the North Sea, including 34 owned and three joint ventured, supporting the construction and maintenance of offshore wind turbines.
Asia. As of December 31, 2015, six vessels were operating in Asia, including four owned and two joint ventured. Offshore Marine Services’ vessels operating in this area generally support exploration and seasonal construction programs. To date, Offshore Marine Services’ largest markets in this area have been Vietnam, Indonesia and Russia.
Seasonality
The demand for Offshore Marine Services' liftboat fleet in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico is seasonal with peak demand normally occurring during the summer months. As a consequence of this seasonality, the Company typically schedules drydockings or other repair and maintenance activity during the winter months.
Customers and Contractual Arrangements
Offshore Marine Services’ principal customers are major integrated oil companies, large independent oil and gas exploration and production companies and emerging independent companies. Consolidation of oil and gas companies through mergers and acquisitions over the past several years has reduced Offshore Marine Services’ customer base. In 2015, no single customer of Offshore Marine Services was responsible for 10% or more of consolidated operating revenues. The ten largest customers of Offshore Marine Services accounted for approximately 55% of Offshore Marine Services’ operating revenues in 2015. The loss of one or a few of these customers could have a material adverse effect on Offshore Marine Services’ results of operations.
The Offshore Marine Services segment earns revenues primarily from the time charter and bareboat charter of vessels to customers based upon daily rates of hire. Under a time charter, Offshore Marine Services provides a vessel to a customer and is responsible for all operating expenses, typically excluding fuel. Under a bareboat charter, Offshore Marine Services provides a vessel to a customer and the customer assumes responsibility for all operating expenses and all risk of operation. Vessel charters may range from several days to several years. In the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, time charter durations and rates are typically established in the context of master service agreements that govern the terms and conditions of charter.
Competitive Conditions
Each of the markets in which Offshore Marine Services operates is highly competitive. The most important competitive factors are pricing and the availability and specifications of equipment to fit customer requirements. Other important factors include service, reputation, flag preference, local marine operating conditions, the ability to provide and maintain logistical support given the complexity of a project and the cost of moving equipment from one geographical location to another.

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Offshore Marine Services has numerous competitors in each of the geographical regions in which it operates, ranging from international companies that operate in many regions to smaller local companies that typically concentrate their activities in one specific region.
Risks of Foreign Operations
For the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, 68%, 57% and 52%, respectively, of Offshore Marine Services’ operating revenues and $8.6 million, $9.9 million and $8.1 million, respectively, of Offshore Marine Services' equity in earnings from 50% or less owned companies, net of tax, were derived from its foreign operations.
Foreign operations are subject to inherent risks, which, if they materialize, could have a material adverse effect on Offshore Marine Services’ financial position and its results of operations. See the risk factor entitled “Risks from the Company’s international operations” in “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”
Inland River Services
Business
Inland River Services operates river transportation equipment used for moving agricultural and industrial commodities and petroleum products on the U.S. Inland River Waterways, primarily the Mississippi River, Illinois River, Tennessee River, Ohio River and their tributaries and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterways. Internationally, Inland River Services has barge operations on the Magdalena River in Colombia and on the Parana-Paraguay River Waterways in Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and Uruguay. In addition to its primary barge and towboat businesses, Inland River Services also operates and invests in high-speed multi-modal terminal facilities for both dry and liquid commodities; barge fleeting locations in various areas of the U.S. Inland River Waterways; a broad range of service facilities including machine shop and the repair and drydocking of barges and towboats at strategic locations on the U.S. Inland River Waterways; and a transshipment terminal at the Port of Ibicuy, Argentina. Inland River Services contributed 22%, 19% and 17% of consolidated operating revenues in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
For a discussion of risk and economic factors that may impact Inland River Services' financial position and its results of operations, see "Item 1A. Risk Factors" and "Inland River Services" in "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations."

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Equipment and Services
The following tables identify the types of equipment that comprise Inland River Services’ fleet as of December 31 for the indicated years. “Owned” are majority owned and controlled by the Company. “Joint Ventured” are owned by entities in which the Company does not have a controlling interest. “Leased-in” may either be equipment contracted from leasing companies to which the Company may have sold such equipment or equipment chartered-in from other third party owners. “Pooled” are barges owned by third parties with operating revenues and voyage expenses pooled with certain barges of a similar type owned by Inland River Services and the net results allocated to participants based upon the number of days the barges participate in the pool. For “Pooled” barges, each barge owner is responsible for the costs of insurance, maintenance and repair as well as for capital and financing costs of its own equipment in the pool and pays a daily management fee to Inland River Services for operating the pool.
 
 
Owned
 
Joint
Ventured
 
Leased-in
 
Pooled
 
Total
 
Owned Fleet Average Age
2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dry-cargo barges
 
645

 
258

 

 
527

 
1,430

 
9

Liquid tank barges:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


 
 
10,000 barrel
 
18

 

 

 

 
18

 
13

30,000 barrel
 
19

 

 
8

 

 
27

 
10

Specialty barges
 
11

 

 

 

 
11

 
36

Towboats(1):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


 
 
4,000 hp - 6,250 hp
 
2

 
11

 
4

 

 
17

 
36

Less than 3,200 hp
 
15

 
2

 

 

 
17

 
26

 
 
710

 
271

 
12

 
527

 
1,520

 
 
2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dry-cargo barges
 
647

 
258

 
2

 
548

 
1,455

 
8

Liquid tank barges:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


 
 
10,000 barrel
 
43

 

 

 
1

 
44

 
12

30,000 barrel
 
19

 

 
8

 

 
27

 
9

Specialty barges
 
7

 

 

 

 
7

 
42

Deck barges
 
20

 

 

 

 
20

 
7

Towboats(1):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


 
 
4,000 hp - 6,250 hp
 

 
17

 

 

 
17

 

Less than 3,200 hp
 
12

 
2

 

 

 
14

 
32

 
 
748

 
277

 
10

 
549

 
1,584

 
 
2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dry-cargo barges
 
667

 
172

 
2

 
564

 
1,405

 
9

Liquid tank barges:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10,000 barrel
 
39

 

 

 
1

 
40

 
12

30,000 barrel
 
19

 

 
8

 

 
27

 
8

Specialty barges
 
7

 

 

 

 
7

 
41

Deck-barges
 
20

 

 

 

 
20

 
6

Towboats(1):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


 
 
4,000 hp - 6,250 hp
 
4

 
13

 

 

 
17

 
36

3,300 hp - 3,900 hp
 
1

 

 

 

 
1

 
41

Less than 3,200 hp
 
12

 
2

 

 

 
14

 
34

Dry-cargo vessel(2)
 

 
1

 

 

 
1

 
29

 
 
769

 
188

 
10

 
565

 
1,532

 
 
______________________
(1)
Towboats have been upgraded and maintained to meet or exceed current industry standards.
(2)
Argentine-flag dry bulk carrier sold in 2014.

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Inland barges are unmanned and are moved by towboats. The combination of a towboat and barges is commonly referred to as a “tow.”
The Inland River Services' dry-cargo fleet consists of hopper barges, which are covered for the transport of products such as grain and grain by-products, fertilizer and steel products or “open tops” for the transport of commodities that are not sensitive to water such as coal, aggregate and scrap. Each dry-cargo barge in the Inland River Services’ fleet is capable of transporting approximately 1,500 to 2,000 tons (1,350 to 1,800 metric tons) of cargo. The carrying capacity of a barge at any particular time is determined by water depth in the river channels and hull depth of the barge. Adverse river conditions, such as high water resulting from excessive rainfall or low water caused by drought, can also impact operations by limiting the speed at which tows travel, the number of barges included in tows and the quantity of cargo that is loaded in the barges.
A typical dry-cargo voyage begins by shifting a clean, empty barge from a fleeting location to a loading facility. The barge is then moved from the loading location and assembled into a tow before proceeding to its discharge destination. After unloading, it is shifted to a fleeting area for cleaning and service, if needed, before being placed again at a load facility.
Inland River Services’ fleet of 10,000 barrel liquid tank barges transports liquid bulk commodities such as refined petroleum products on voyage affreightment contracts on the Magdalena River in Colombia.
Inland River Services’ fleet of 30,000 barrel liquid tank barges transport refined petroleum products and heavy and light petroleum products and are normally chartered-out as “unit tows” consisting of two to three barges along with a towboat working in patterns prescribed by the customer. Inland River Services is responsible for providing manpower for the towboats working in such operations.
As of December 31, 2015, in addition to its existing fleet, Inland River Services had new construction projects in progress for one 30,000 barrel liquid tank barge, 50 dry-cargo barges and five towboats with deliveries in 2016 and 2017 for operation on the U.S Inland River Waterways and the Magdalena River.

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Markets
Inland River Services operates equipment in three principal geographic regions. The table below sets forth equipment type by geographic market as of December 31 for the indicated years. Inland River Services sometimes participates in joint venture arrangements in certain geographical locations in order to enhance marketing capabilities and facilitate operations in certain foreign markets allowing for the expansion of its operations while diversifying risks and reducing capital outlays associated with such expansion.
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013(1)
U.S. Inland River Waterways
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dry-cargo barges
 
1,172

 
1,195

 
1,227

Liquid tank barges:
 
 
 
 
 
 
10,000 barrel
 

 
36

 
36

30,000 barrel
 
27

 
27

 
27

Specialty barges
 
11

 
7

 
7

Deck barges
 

 
20

 
20

Towboats:
 
 
 
 
 
 
4,000 hp – 6,250 hp
 
6

 
6

 
10

3,300 hp – 3,900 hp
 

 

 
1

Less than 3,200 hp
 
13

 
10

 
10

 
 
1,229

 
1,301

 
1,338

Magdalena River
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dry-cargo barges
 

 
2

 
6

Liquid tank barges:
 
 
 
 
 
 
10,000 barrel
 
18

 
8

 
4

Towboats:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Less than 3,200 hp
 
2

 
2

 
2

 
 
20

 
12

 
12

Parana-Paraguay River Waterway
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dry-cargo barges
 
258

 
258

 
172

Towboats:
 
 
 
 
 
 
4,000 hp – 6,250 hp
 
11

 
11

 
7

Less than 3,200 hp
 
2

 
2

 
2

 
 
271

 
271

 
181

 
 
1,520

 
1,584

 
1,531

______________________
(1)
Excludes Argentine-flag dry bulk carrier sold in 2014.
U.S. Inland River Waterways. Inland River Services transports various commodities on the U.S. Inland River Waterways in dry-cargo and liquid tank barges, primarily including grain and grain by-products, fertilizer, steel products, refined petroleum products and crude. Typically, grain cargoes move southbound and non-grain cargoes move northbound in dry-cargo barges. Generally, Inland River Services attempts to coordinate the logistical match-up of northbound and southbound movements of cargo to minimize repositioning costs. In addition to its primary barge and towboat businesses, Inland River Services also operates and invests in high-speed multi-modal terminal facilities for both dry and liquid commodities, barge fleeting locations in various areas of the Inland Waterway System; and a broad range of service facilities including machine shop and the repair and drydocking of barges and towboats at strategic locations on the U.S. Inland River Waterways.
Magdalena River. Inland River Services transports refined petroleum products and heavy and light petroleum products outbound from central Colombia to the Caribbean Sea and various other cargoes on inbound return trips to central Colombia.
Parana-Paraguay Waterway. Inland River Services, through its 50% noncontrolling interest in SCFCo Holdings Inc. ("SCFCo"), transports various commodities on the Parana-Paraguay Waterway in dry-cargo barges, primarily iron ore, grains and fertilizer. In addition to its primary barge and towboat business, SCFCo invests in a transshipment terminal at the Port of Ibicuy, Argentina.

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Seasonality
During harsh winters, the upper Mississippi River usually closes to barge traffic from mid-December to mid-March. Ice often hinders the navigation of barge traffic on the mid-Mississippi River, the Illinois River and the upper Ohio River during the same period. The volume of grain transported from the Midwest to the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, which is primarily for export, is greatest during the harvest season from mid-August through late November. The harvest season is particularly significant to Inland River Services because pricing for hauling freight tends to peak during these months in response to higher demand for equipment.
The Magdalena River basin has two rainy and two dry seasons annually. The lowest river levels occur from mid-December to mid-February causing difficult navigation conditions within the mid and upper river regions.
On the Parana-Paraguay Waterway, water levels are typically lower during December and January making navigation difficult on the northern portion of the river. During this time period, barge traffic is primarily focused on transporting grains from Paraguay to Argentina.
Customers and Contractual Arrangements
The principal customers for Inland River Services are major agricultural companies, major integrated oil companies, iron ore producers and industrial companies. In 2015, no single customer of Inland River Services was responsible for 10% or more of consolidated operating revenues. The ten largest customers of Inland River Services accounted for approximately 64% of Inland River Services’ revenues in 2015. The loss of one or a few of its customers could have a material adverse effect on Inland River Services’ results of operations.
Inland River Services’ dry-cargo barges are employed under contracts of affreightment that can vary in duration, ranging from one voyage to several years and consecutive voyage charters or time charters, which typically range from one to three years. For longer term contracts of affreightment and consecutive voyage and time charters, base rates may be adjusted in response to changes in fuel prices and operating expenses. Some term contracts provide for the transport of a minimum number of tons of cargo or specific transportation requirements for a particular customer. Some barges are bareboat chartered-out to third parties for a fixed payment of hire per day for the duration of the charter. These contracts tend to be longer, ranging in term from one to five years. Inland River Services generally charges a price per ton for point to point transportation of dry bulk commodities. Customers are permitted a specified number of days to load and discharge the cargo and thereafter pay a per diem demurrage rate for extra time. From time to time, dry-cargo barges may be used for storage for a period prior to delivery.
Inland River Services’ 10,000 barrel liquid tank barges and 30,000 barrel liquid tank barges are either chartered-out on term contracts ranging from one to five years, marketed in the spot market, or operate under voyage affreightment contracts.
Inland River Services' tank farm, dry bulk and container handling facilities and its noncontrolling interest in a transshipment terminal at the Port of Ibicuy, Argentina are marketed on a tariff system driven by throughput volume.
Inland River Services' fleeting operations generally charge a day rate for fleeting and a per shift fee for handling to and from docks and cleaning and repair facilities.
Inland River Services' machine shop and repairs of towboats and barges are charged either on an hourly basis or on a fixed fee basis depending on the scope and nature of work.
Competitive Conditions
Inland River Services’ main competitors are other barge lines. Railroads and liquid pipelines also compete for traffic that might otherwise move on the U.S. Inland River Waterways. The Company believes that 71% of the domestic dry-cargo fleet is controlled by five companies and 57% of the domestic liquid barge industry fleet is controlled by five companies.
Generally, the Company believes the primary barriers to effective competitive entry into the U.S. Inland River Waterways markets are the complexity of operations, the consolidation of the inland river towing industry and the difficulty in assembling a large enough fleet and an experienced staff to execute voyages efficiently and reposition barges effectively to optimize their use. Inland River Services believes the primary barriers to effective competitive entry into the Magdalena River and Parana-Paraguay Waterways markets is similar to the U.S. Inland River Waterways markets along with local flag requirements for equipment and local content requirements for operation. The primary competitive factors among established operators are price, availability and reliability of barges and equipment of a suitable type and condition for a specific cargo.
Risks of Foreign Operations
For the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, Inland River Services’ operating revenues derived from its foreign operations were not material. For the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, $(32.5) million, $3.7 million and $(5.8) million, respectively, of Inland River Services' equity in earnings (losses) from 50% or less owned companies, net of tax, were derived from its foreign operations.

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Foreign operations are subject to inherent risks, which, if they materialize, could have a material adverse effect on Inland River Services’ financial position and its results of operations. See the risk factor entitled "Risks from the Company’s international operations" in "Item 1A. Risk Factors."
Shipping Services
Business
Shipping Services operates a diversified fleet of U.S.-flag marine transportation related assets, including its 51% controlling interest in certain of its subsidiaries (collectively “SEA-Vista”), which operates product tankers servicing the U.S. coastwise trade of crude oil, petroleum and chemical products, and including its harbor tugs servicing vessels docking in U.S. Gulf and East Coast ports. Additional services include liner and short-sea transportation to and from ports in Florida, Puerto Rico, the Bahamas and the Western Caribbean, a terminal support and bunkering operation in St. Eustatius, a U.S.-flag articulated tug and dry bulk barge operating on the Great Lakes, a U.S.-flag offshore tug and technical ship management services for third party vessel owners. Shipping Services contributed 21%, 16% and 16% of consolidated operating revenues in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
For a discussion of risk and economic factors that may impact Shipping Services' financial position and its results of operations, see "Item 1A. Risk Factors" and "Shipping Services" in "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations."

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Equipment, Services and Markets
The following tables identify the types of equipment that comprise Shipping Services' fleet as of December 31 for the indicated years. "Owned” are majority owned and controlled by Shipping Services. “Joint Ventured” are owned by entities in which Shipping Services does not have a controlling interest. “Leased-in” may either be equipment contracted from leasing companies to which the Company may have sold such equipment or equipment chartered-in from third parties.
 
 
Owned
 
Joint Ventured(2)
 
Leased-in
 
Total
2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Petroleum Transportation:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product tankers - U.S.-flag
 
4

 

 
3

 
7

Crude oil tanker - U.S.-flag
 

 
1

 

 
1

Harbor Towing and Bunkering:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Harbor tugs - U.S.-flag
 
15

 

 
9

 
24

Harbor tugs - Foreign-flag
 
4

 

 

 
4

Offshore tugs - U.S.-flag
 

 
1

 

 
1

Ocean liquid tank barges - U.S.-flag
 
5

 

 

 
5

Liner and Short-Sea Transportation:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
RORO(1)/Deck barges - U.S.-flag
 

 
7

 

 
7

Short-sea container/RORO(1) - Foreign-flag
 
7

 

 

 
7

Other:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dry bulk articulated tug-barge - U.S.-flag
 

 
1

 

 
1

 
 
35

 
10

 
12

 
57

2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Petroleum Transportation:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Product tankers - U.S.-flag
 
4

 

 
3

 
7

Harbor Towing and Bunkering:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Harbor tugs - U.S.-flag
 
15

 

 
9

 
24

Harbor tugs - Foreign-flag
 
4

 

 

 
4

Offshore tugs - U.S.-flag
 

 
1

 

 
1

Ocean liquid tank barges - U.S.-flag
 
5

 

 

 
5

Liner and Short-Sea Transportation:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
RORO(1)/Deck barges - U.S.-flag
 

 
7

 

 
7

Short-sea container/RORO(1) - Foreign-flag
 
7

 

 

 
7

Other:
 

 

 

 

Dry bulk articulated tug-barge - U.S.-flag
 

 
1

 

 
1

 
 
35

 
9

 
12

 
56

2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Petroleum Transportation:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Product tankers - U.S.-flag
 
5

 

 
2

 
7

Harbor Towing and Bunkering:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Harbor tugs - U.S.-flag
 
15

 

 
9

 
24

Harbor tugs - Foreign-flag
 
4

 

 

 
4

Ocean liquid tank barges - U.S.-flag
 
5

 

 

 
5

Liner and Short-Sea Transportation:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
RORO(1)/Deck barges - U.S.-flag
 

 
7

 

 
7

Short-sea container/RORO(1) - Foreign-flag
 
8

 

 

 
8

Other:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dry bulk articulated tug-barge - U.S.-flag
 

 
1

 

 
1

 
 
37

 
8

 
11

 
56

______________________
(1)
Roll On/Roll Off.
(2)
Previously reported equipment operated by Dorian LPG Ltd. ("Dorian") has been removed from all periods presented. As of December 31, 2015, the Company's investment in Dorian is classified as marketable securities.

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Petroleum Transportation. In the U.S. coastwise trade, oceangoing vessels transport crude oil, petroleum and chemical products primarily from production areas, refineries and storage facilities along the coast of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico to refineries, utilities, waterfront industrial facilities and distribution facilities along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico and additionally along the U.S. Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Through its 51% controlling interest in SEA-Vista, Shipping Services operates a fleet of owned and leased-in U.S.-flag product tankers servicing this trade, which as of December 31, 2015 included the following vessels:
Name of Vessel
 
Year of Build
 
Capacity
in barrels
 
Tonnage
in  “dwt”(1)
Seabulk Trader(2)
 
1981
 
294,000

 
48,700

Seabulk Challenge
 
1981
 
294,000

 
48,700

California Voyager(2)(3)
 
1999
 
341,000

 
45,000

Oregon Voyager(2)(3)
 
1999
 
341,000

 
45,000

Seabulk Arctic
 
1998
 
340,000

 
46,000

Mississippi Voyager(3)
 
1998
 
340,000

 
46,000

Florida Voyager(3)
 
1998
 
340,000

 
46,000

______________________
(1)
Deadweight tons or “dwt”.
(2)
Leased-in vessel.
(3)
Operating under long-term bareboat charter with a customer.
As of December 31, 2015, in addition to its existing fleet, SEA-Vista had three U.S.-flag product tankers under construction scheduled for delivery in 2016 and 2017 and one U.S.-flag chemical and petroleum articulated tug-barge under construction scheduled for delivery in the fourth quarter of 2016.
Harbor Towing and Bunkering. In the domestic harbor towing trade, harbor tugs operate alongside oceangoing vessels to assist their docking and undocking procedures. Bunkering activities typically include one towboat and one ocean liquid tank barge mooring alongside a docked or anchored vessel and transferring fuel oil. Offshore towing activities typically involve one offshore tug engaged in long haul towing of large ocean barges, dead ships and other large floating equipment requiring auxiliary power. As of December 31, 2015, Shipping Services' harbor tugs were operating in various ports including three in Port Everglades, Florida, four in the Port of Tampa, Florida, two in Port Canaveral, Florida, six in Port Arthur, Texas, four in Mobile, Alabama and four in Lake Charles, Louisiana. In addition, four tugs and five liquid tank barges were operating in St. Eustatius, one tug was operating under a bareboat charter arrangement with a third party and one was cold-stacked. Through its 50% noncontrolling interest in SeaJon II LLC (“SeaJon II”), Shipping Services currently operates one offshore tug under a time charter arrangement to Trailer Bridge, Inc. ("Trailer Bridge") in its Puerto Rico liner trade.
Liner and Short-Sea Transportation. In the liner and short-sea transportation trade, RORO barges, deck barges and RORO vessels provide cargo transportation services to and from ports in Florida, Puerto Rico, the Bahamas and the Western Caribbean for the shipment of containers, vehicles and project cargoes. Equipment operated in the Puerto Rico liner trade is through Shipping Services’ 47% noncontrolling interest in Trailer Bridge.
Other. Through its 50% noncontrolling interest in SeaJon LLC (“SeaJon”), Shipping Services invests in a dry bulk articulated tug-barge on a long-term bareboat charter in the Great Lakes.
Customers and Contractual Arrangements
The primary purchasers of petroleum transportation services are multinational oil companies, refining companies, oil trading companies and large industrial consumers of crude and petroleum. Services are generally contracted on the basis of short-term or long-term time charters, voyage charters and contracts of affreightment or other transportation agreements tailored to the shipper's requirements. The primary purchasers of harbor towing and bunkering services are vessel owners and charterers including multinational oil companies, trading houses and shipping companies and pools. Services are contracted using prevailing port tariff terms on a per-use basis. The primary purchasers of liner and short-sea transportation services are individuals and businesses retailing or consuming U.S. export goods in Puerto Rico, the Bahamas and Western Caribbean. Shipping Services also provides technical ship management services to ship owners. In 2015, no single customer of Shipping Services was responsible for 10% or more of consolidated operating revenues. The ten largest customers of Shipping Services accounted for approximately 61% of its operating revenues in 2015. The loss of one or a few of these customers could have a material adverse effect on Shipping Services' results of operations.
Under a time charter, Shipping Services provides a vessel to a customer and is responsible for all operating expenses, typically excluding fuel and port charges. Under a bareboat charter, Shipping Services provides a vessel to a customer and the customer assumes responsibility for all operating expenses and risks of operation. Vessel charters may range from several days to several years. Voyage contracts are contracts to carry cargoes on a single voyage basis regardless of time to complete. Contracts

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of affreightment are contracts for cargoes that are committed on a multi-voyage basis for various periods of time, with minimum and maximum cargo tonnages specified over the period at a fixed or escalating rate per ton.
Competitive Conditions
Each of the markets in which Shipping Services operates is highly competitive. Primary direct competitors for U.S.-flag petroleum transportation are other operators of U.S.-flag oceangoing tank vessels, operators of articulated tug-barge units, operators of refined product and crude pipelines and railroads. Primary direct competitors for harbor towing and bunkering are operators of U.S.-flagged harbor tugs and bunkering barges. The U.S. “Jones Act” shipping market is a trade that is not available to foreign-based competition. The most important competitive factors are pricing, vessel age, vessel type and vessel availability to fit customer requirements. Primary direct competition for cargo liner transportation are other operators of cargo vessels operating between ports in Florida, Puerto Rico, the Bahamas and the Western Caribbean.
Risks of Foreign Operations
For the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, 15%, 15% and 16%, respectively, of Shipping Services’ operating revenues were derived from its foreign operations. For the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, $(22.2) million, $6.0 million and $1.5 million, respectively, of Shipping Services' equity in earnings (losses) from 50% or less owned companies, net of tax, were derived from its foreign operations.
Foreign operations are subject to inherent risks, which, if they materialize, could have a material adverse effect on Shipping Services’ financial position and its results of operations. See the risk factor entitled "Risks from the Company’s international operations" in "Item 1A. Risk Factors."
Illinois Corn Processing
Business
Illinois Corn Processing, LLC ("ICP") operates a single-site alcohol manufacturing, storage and distribution facility located in Pekin, Illinois and is a leading producer of alcohol used in the food, beverage, industrial and petrochemical end-markets. As co-products of its manufacturing process, ICP additionally produces Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles ("DDGS") primarily used for animal feed and produces non-food grade Corn Oil primarily used for feedstock in biodiesel production. The Company owns a 70% interest in ICP. ICP contributed 16%, 18% and 16% of consolidated operating revenues in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
For a discussion of risk and economic factors that may impact ICP's financial position and its results of operations, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and " Illinois Corn Processing" in "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations."
Manufacturing Facility and Products
The Pekin dry mill alcohol plant has an optimum production capacity of 84.0 million gallons per year. Its flexible production platform and infrastructure enable ICP to produce, store and transport more diverse grades of high quality alcohols which typically sell at premiums to fuel-grade ethanol. The capability to produce these higher grade alcohol products provides a more diverse business model and differentiates ICP from other fuel-grade only ethanol plants.
The facility’s unique production capabilities allow ICP to target concentrated value-added alcohol markets in addition to the much larger commodity fuel ethanol market. The plant can also operate in a wide variety of production scenarios in which product mix and run rates vary significantly. This flexibility enables ICP to adjust its operations to prevailing market conditions and customer demands and to maximize the value of its product portfolio.
ICP's location in Pekin, Illinois adjacent to the Illinois River allows for efficient access to raw materials and is a benefit as it provides access to markets not as efficiently serviced by rail or truck, although the plant can ship by both of these modes of transportation. ICP 's river terminal allows for cost-effective delivery of all grades of alcohol from liquid tank barges throughout the U.S. Inland River Waterways, as well as delivery to the U.S. Gulf of Mexico in order to facilitate export of ICP alcohol products. ICP typically delivers its DDGS product via barge as well, which facilitates exports to higher-value markets overseas.
In addition to barge transportation, the Pekin plant is serviced by a local short-line rail service giving ICP access to multiple Class 1 rail transportation destinations. Truck transportation provides ICP and its customers with access to major regional population centers, including Chicago and other Midwestern hubs. The Pekin plant is centrally located in the corn belt, and ICP sources the majority of its corn supply within a 50 mile radius of the plant. If economics dictate, ICP can also source corn via barge delivery from other regions of the country.

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Markets
ICP’s alcohol sales product mix includes a blend of high quality alcohol products used in food, beverage and industrial manufacturing applications; other alcohol products destined for export or for domestic industrial applications; and fuel grade alcohol product destined for gasoline blending applications.
High Quality Alcohol. ICP sells specialized high quality alcohol products into a variety of domestic end-markets including food (e.g. vinegar) and beverage, cleaning and laundry products, personal care products (e.g. hair sprays and hand sanitizers), cosmetics, and various industrial chemical manufacturing applications. ICP principally sells high quality alcohol products in truckload and rail car tanker quantities delivered directly to various industrial manufacturers. ICP also has the ability to deliver high quality alcohol in barge-load quantities.
Other Alcohol. ICP produces and sells other specialized alcohol products, which are either destined for export markets for use in various industrial end-markets or are sold domestically into various industrial chemical manufacturing applications or as feedstock for additional distillation. Other alcohol is sold via barge, rail or truck.
Fuel Ethanol. ICP produces fuel grade ethanol, which is principally sold domestically for blending into U.S. gasoline products. Fuel ethanol, blended into gasoline, is principally used as an oxygenate to increase octane and to extend fuel supplies. ICP’s fuel grade ethanol is principally sold in barge-load quantities to large producers, traders, or blenders of fuel ethanol products.
DDGS and Corn Oil. In producing alcohol, ICP produces two principal co-products; DDGS and Corn Oil. ICP’s DDGS is principally sold domestically to large agricultural commodity traders, which in turn export the product to higher value markets overseas. ICP’s non-food grade corn oil is principally sold domestically for feedstock in biodiesel production.
Customers and Contractual Arrangements
The principal customers of ICP are alcohol trading companies, industrial manufacturers, major agricultural companies, major integrated oil companies, and manufacturers in the food, beverage and household products industries. In 2015, no customer was responsible for 10% or more of consolidated operating revenues. The ten largest customers of ICP accounted for approximately 91% of its revenues in 2015. The loss of one or more of its customers could have a material adverse effect on ICP's results of operations.
ICP has no long-term marketing or sales agreements with any customer. High quality alcohol products are typically sold at fixed prices for specified volumes with deliveries from one to twelve months forward. Other alcohol products are typically sold at indexed-prices for specified volumes with deliveries from one to six months forward. Fuel ethanol products are typically sold at indexed-prices for specified volumes with deliveries from one to three months forward. DDGS and Corn Oil products are typically sold at fixed prices for specified volumes with deliveries from one to six months forward.
Competitive Conditions
High Quality Alcohol Market. The high quality alcohol market is a concentrated market with few producers and customers. Our competition in this market is limited to other domestic alcohol producers with the capability to make high quality alcohol products. Producers in this market primarily focus on domestic sales.
ICP believes the primary barriers to effective competitive entry in the high quality alcohol market are the high capital cost for new facilities and the mature market in which it competes. ICP is positioned as a valued industrial ingredient supplier to customers in the beverage, food and industrial manufacturing markets. For these customers, high quality alcohol is a significant input to their manufacturing processes and end products. These customers demand tight product specifications. Quality and service factors create entrenched customer relationships and provide a competitive barrier against fuel ethanol producers that want to compete in these markets.
Other Alcohol Market. The other alcohol market is also a concentrated market with few producers and customers. For products destined for the industrial export marketplace, ICP’s competition is a few other U.S. producers and several foreign producers.
Fuel Ethanol Market. The U.S. fuel ethanol industry represents a significant portion of the U.S. gasoline market as fuel ethanol is generally blended at a 10% rate into the U.S. gasoline supply. In the United States, fuel ethanol is principally used as an octane enhancer to help refiners meet federal and state air emission standards and to extend fuel supplies. The U.S. fuel ethanol industry produced 14.7 billion gallons of fuel ethanol in the twelve months ending September 2015 according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The Renewable Fuels Association, an industry trade association, reports that there are 214 ethanol refineries in the U.S. with nameplate capacity to produce 15.5 billion gallons of ethanol per year.
U.S. ethanol is produced mainly from corn and competes globally with Brazilian ethanol, which is produced mainly from sugar. U.S. exports of fuel ethanol, which must be cost competitive against Brazilian ethanol, are an important factor in the supply and demand economics of U.S. ethanol production.

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Source and Availability of Raw Materials
ICP’s principal feedstock used to produce alcohol is corn. ICP’s corn is procured directly from grain elevators and wholesale merchants in North America primarily located in central Illinois. ICP has no long-term corn procurement agreements, but instead purchases corn on a spot basis. The Company is not dependent upon any particular elevator or merchant as a source for its corn purchases.
Other
The Company has other activities that primarily include:
Emergency and crisis services. Effective July 1, 2014, the Company acquired a controlling interest in Witt Group Holdings, LLC ("Witt O'Brien's") through the acquisition of its partner's equity interest and has consolidated the financial position, results of operations and cash flows of Witt O'Brien's as of that date. Witt O'Brien's provides risk management solutions to oil, chemical and marine transportation clients, and private sector and government agencies in the United States and abroad. In the United States, these services are generally rendered to those clients who store, transport, produce or handle petroleum and certain non-petroleum oils that are subject to the provisions of OPA 90 and various other federal, state and municipal regulations. Internationally, these services may be required by legislation and regulations of countries, international maritime conventions and environmental covenants placed on clients by their lending institutions. Witt O’Brien’s also provides emergency preparedness, response and recovery management services to governmental agencies and the private sector arising from all-hazards.
Lending and leasing activities. Lending and leasing activities primarily involve the secured financing of various types of equipment that require scheduled lease payments or periodic principal and interest payments.
Noncontrolling investments in various other businesses. These investments primarily include industrial aviation services businesses in Asia and an agricultural commodity trading and logistics business that is primarily focused on the global origination, trading and merchandising of sugar, pairing producers and buyers and arranging for the transportation and logistics of the product.
Government Regulation
Regulatory Matters
The Company’s operations are subject to significant United States federal, state and local regulations, as well as international conventions and the laws of foreign jurisdictions where the Company operates its equipment or where the equipment is registered. The Company’s domestically registered vessels are subject to the jurisdiction of the United States Coast Guard ("USCG"), the National Transportation Safety Board (“NTSB”), the U.S. Customs and Border Protection ("CBP"), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") and state environmental protection agencies for those jurisdictions in which the Company operates, and the U.S. Maritime Administration, as well as to the rules of private industry organizations such as the American Bureau of Shipping. The Company's operations in Offshore Marine Services may, from time to time, fall under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement ("BSEE") and its Safety and Environmental Management System regulations, and the Company is also required to certify that its maritime operations adhere to those regulations. These agencies and organizations establish safety standards and are authorized to investigate vessels and accidents and to recommend improved maritime safety standards.
Offshore Marine Services, Inland River Services and Shipping Services are subject to U.S. cabotage laws that impose certain restrictions on the ownership and operation of vessels in the U.S. coastwise trade (i.e., trade between points in the United States), including the transportation of cargo. These laws are principally contained in 46 U.S.C. § 50501 and 46 U.S.C. Chapter 551 and related regulations and are commonly referred to collectively as the “Jones Act.” Subject to limited exceptions, the Jones Act requires that vessels engaged in U.S. coastwise trade be built in the United States, registered under the U.S.-flag, manned by predominantly U.S. crews, and owned and operated by U.S. citizens within the meaning of the Jones Act. For purposes of the Jones Act, a corporation must satisfy the following requirements to be deemed a U.S. citizen: (i) the corporation must be organized under the laws of the United States or of a state, territory or possession thereof; (ii) each of the chief executive officer and the chairman of the board of directors of such corporation must be a U.S. citizen; (iii) no more than a minority of the number of directors of such corporation necessary to constitute a quorum for the transaction of business can be non-U.S. citizens; and (iv) at least 75% of each class or series of stock in such corporation must be owned by U.S. citizens within the meaning of the Jones Act. Should the Company fail to comply with the U.S. citizenship requirements of the Jones Act, it would be prohibited from operating its vessels in the U.S. coastwise trade during the period of such non-compliance. In addition, the Company could be subject to fines and its vessels could be subject to seizure and forfeiture for violations of the Jones Act and the related U.S. vessel documentation laws.
To facilitate compliance with the Jones Act, SEACOR’s Restated Certificate of Incorporation: (i) limits the aggregate percentage ownership by non-U.S. citizens of any class of SEACOR’s capital stock (including Common Stock) to 22.5% of the outstanding shares of each such class to ensure that ownership by non-U.S. citizens will not exceed the maximum percentage

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permitted by applicable maritime law (presently 25%) but authorizes SEACOR’s Board of Directors, under certain circumstances, to increase the foregoing percentage to 24%; (ii) requires institution of a dual stock certification system to help determine such ownership; (iii) provides that any issuance or transfer of shares in excess of such permitted percentage shall be ineffective as against the Company and that neither the Company nor its transfer agent shall register such purported issuance or transfer of shares or be required to recognize the purported transferee or owner as a stockholder of the Company for any purpose whatsoever except to exercise the Company’s remedies; (iv) provides that any such excess shares shall not have any voting or dividend rights; (v) permits the Company to redeem any such excess shares; and (vi) permits the Board of Directors to make such determinations as reasonably may be necessary to ascertain such ownership and implement such limitations. In addition, SEACOR’s by-laws provide that the number of non-U.S. citizen directors shall not exceed a minority of the number necessary to constitute a quorum for the transaction of business and restrict any non-U.S. citizen officer from acting in the absence or disability of the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer or the President.
Offshore Marine Services, Inland River Services and Shipping Services operate vessels that are registered in the United States and others registered in a number of foreign jurisdictions. Vessels are subject to the laws of the applicable jurisdiction as to ownership, registration, manning and safety. For instance, vessels operated as standby safety vessels in the North Sea are subject to the requirements of the Department of Transport of the United Kingdom pursuant to the United Kingdom Safety Act. In addition, the Company's vessels are subject to the requirements of a number of international conventions that are applicable to vessels depending on their jurisdiction of registration. Among the more significant of these conventions are: (i) the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto ("MARPOL"); (ii) the International Convention on the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 and 1978 Protocols ("SOLAS"); and (iii) the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (“STCW”). Key amendments to SOLAS addressing plans and procedures for the recovery of persons from water, firefighter communications, and shipboard noise reduction went into effect July 1, 2014. Major revisions to STCW and its associated code went into effect on January 1, 2012 with a five-year transition period until January 1, 2017. The Company believes that its vessels are in compliance with all applicable material regulations and have all licenses necessary to conduct their business.
The Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (the “MLC”), which consolidates almost all of the 70 existing International Labour Organization maritime labour instruments in a single modern, globally applicable, legal instrument, went into effect on August 20, 2013. The MLC establishes comprehensive minimum requirements for working conditions of seafarers including, among other things, conditions of employment, hours of work and rest, grievance and complaints procedures, accommodations, recreational facilities, food and catering, health protection, medical care, welfare, and social security protection. The MLC's definition of seafarer now includes all persons engaged in work on a vessel in addition to the vessel's crew. Under this MLC definition, the Company may be responsible for proving that customer and contractor personnel aboard its vessels have contracts of employment that comply with the MLC requirements. The Company could also be responsible for salaries and/or benefits of third parties that may board one of the Company's vessels. The MLC requires certain vessels that engage in international trade to maintain a valid Maritime Labour Certificate issued by their flag administration. The Company has developed and implemented a fleetwide action plan to comply with the MLC to the extent applicable to its vessels. Although the United States is not a party to the MLC, U.S.-flag vessels operating internationally must comply with the MLC when visiting a port in a country that is a party to the MLC.
All of Shipping Services’ vessels, certain of Offshore Marine Services’ vessels and all of Inland River Services’ liquid tank barges are subject to periodic inspection, survey, drydocking and maintenance requirements of the USCG and/or the American Bureau of Shipping and other marine classification societies. Moreover, to ensure compliance with applicable safety regulations, the USCG is authorized to inspect vessels at will.
In addition to the USCG, the EPA, the Office of Pipeline Safety, the BSEE and certain individual states regulate vessels, facilities and pipelines in accordance with the requirements of Oil Pollution Act of 1990 ("OPA 90") or under analogous state law. There is currently little uniformity among the regulations issued by these agencies.
When responding to third-party oil spills, a responder engaged in emergency and crisis activities has immunity from liability under federal law and all U.S. coastal state laws for any spills arising from its response efforts, except in the event of death or personal injury or as a result of its gross negligence or willful misconduct. It should be noted, however, that as a result of the Deepwater Horizon incident in 2010, some gaps have been identified in this responder immunity regime and actions are being taken by the response industry to seek modifications to existing law to remedy these gaps.
Environmental Compliance
As more fully described below, all of the Company’s businesses are, to some degree, subject to federal, state, local and international laws and regulations, as well as those of individual countries in which the Company operates, relating to environmental protection and occupational safety and health, including laws that govern the discharge of oil and pollutants into U.S. navigable and other waters or into waters covered by international law or such individual countries. Violations of these laws may result in civil and criminal penalties, fines, injunctions or other sanctions.

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The Company believes that its operations are currently in compliance with all material environmental laws and regulations. It does not expect that it will be required to make capital expenditures in the near future that are material to its financial position or operations to comply with environmental laws and regulations or that complying with such laws will have a material effect on its earnings and its competitive position; however, because such laws and regulations frequently change and may impose increasingly strict requirements, the Company cannot predict the ultimate cost of complying with these laws and regulations. The recent trend in environmental legislation and regulation is generally toward stricter standards, and it is the Company’s view that this trend is likely to continue.
OPA 90 establishes a regulatory and liability regime for the protection of the environment from oil spills. OPA 90 applies to owners and operators of facilities operating near navigable waters and owners and operators of vessels operating in U.S. waters, which include the navigable waters of the United States and the 200-mile Exclusive Economic Zone of the United States. For purposes of its liability limits and financial responsibility and response planning requirements, OPA 90 differentiates between tank vessels (which include the Company’s chemical and petroleum product vessels and liquid tank barges) and “other vessels” (which include the Company’s tugs, offshore support vessels and dry-cargo barges).
Under OPA 90, owners and operators of regulated facilities and owners and operators or bareboat charterers of vessels are “responsible parties” and are jointly, severally and strictly liable for removal costs and damages arising from facility and vessel oil spills or threatened spills up to their limits of liability (except if the limits are broken as discussed below) unless the spill results solely from the act or omission of certain third parties under specified circumstances, an act of God or an act of war. In addition, Section 713 of the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2010, enacted on October 15, 2010, amended OPA 90 to include as a responsible party the owner of oil being transported in a tank vessel with a single hull after December 31, 2010. Damages are defined broadly to include: (i) injury to natural resources and the costs of remediation thereof; (ii) injury to, or economic losses resulting from the destruction of, real and personal property; (iii) net loss by the United States government, a state or political subdivision thereof, of taxes, royalties, rents, fees and profits; (iv) lost profits or impairment of earning capacity due to property or natural resources damage; (v) net costs of providing increased or additional public services necessitated by a spill response, such as protection from fire or other hazards or taking additional safety precautions; and (vi) loss of subsistence use of available natural resources.
Effective December 31, 2015, the OPA 90 regulations were amended to increase the liability limits for responsible parties for non-tank vessels to $1,100 per gross ton or $939,800, whichever is greater, and for tank vessels the maximum limits of liability are the greater of $3,500 per gross ton or $25,845,600. Under revised procedures, the USCG will conduct an evaluation every three years to determine whether liability limits should be increased further. These liability limits do not apply (a) if an incident is caused by the responsible party’s violation of federal safety, construction or operating regulations or by the responsible party’s gross negligence or willful misconduct, (b) if the responsible party fails to report the incident or to provide reasonable cooperation and assistance in connection with oil removal activities as required by a responsible official or (c) if the responsible party fails to comply with an order issued under OPA 90.
OPA 90 expanded pre-existing financial responsibility requirements and requires tank vessel owners and operators to establish and maintain with the USCG evidence of insurance or qualification as a self-insurer or other evidence of financial responsibility sufficient to meet their potential liabilities under OPA 90. Under OPA 90, an owner or operator of a fleet of vessels may demonstrate evidence of financial responsibility in an amount sufficient to cover the vessels in the fleet having the greatest maximum liability under OPA 90. The Company has satisfied USCG regulations by providing evidence of financial responsibility demonstrated by commercial insurance and self-insurance. The regulations also implement the financial responsibility requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (“CERCLA”), which imposes liability for discharges of hazardous substances such as chemicals, similar to OPA 90, and provides compensation for cleanup, removal and natural resource damages. Liability per vessel under CERCLA is limited to the greater of $300 per gross ton or $5 million, unless the incident is caused by gross negligence, willful misconduct, or a violation of certain regulations, in which case liability is unlimited.
OPA 90 amended the Clean Water Act (“CWA”), described below, to require the owner or operator of certain facilities or of any tank vessel to prepare facility or vessel response plans and to contract with oil spill removal organizations to remove, to the maximum extent practicable, a worst-case discharge. The Company has complied with these requirements. The Company expects its pollution liability insurance to cover any cost of spill removal subject to overall coverage limitations of $1.0 billion; however, a failure or refusal of the insurance carrier to provide coverage in the event of a catastrophic spill could result in material liability in excess of available insurance coverage, resulting in a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Under a Final Rule issued by the USCG on September 30, 2013, the USCG Nontank Vessel Response Plans ("NTVRPs") must be submitted by owners and operators of self-propelled nontank vessels of 400 gross tons or greater that carry oil of any kind as fuel for main propulsion and that operate on the navigable waterways of the United States. The requirements for nontank vessels are generally similar to those for tank vessels. The Company has developed and submitted NTVRPs to meet this requirement and such plans have been approved.

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OPA 90 allows states to impose their own liability regimes with respect to oil pollution incidents occurring within their boundaries and many states have enacted legislation providing for unlimited liability for oil spills. Some states have issued regulations addressing financial responsibility and vessel and facility response planning requirements. The Company does not anticipate that state legislation or regulations will have any material impact on its operations.
In addition to OPA 90, the following are examples of environmental laws that relate to the Company’s business and operations:
MARPOL is the main international convention covering prevention of pollution of the marine environment by vessels from operational or accidental causes. It has been updated by amendments through the years and is implemented in the United States pursuant to the Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships. MARPOL has six specific annexes and Annex I governs oil pollution.
Since the 1990s, the Department of Justice ("DOJ") has been aggressively enforcing U.S. criminal laws against vessel owners, operators, managers, crewmembers, shoreside personnel, and corporate officers for actions related to violations of MARPOL Annex I. Prosecutions generally involve violations related to pollution prevention devices, such as the oil-water separator, and include falsifying the Oil Record Book, obstruction of justice, false statements and conspiracy. The DOJ has imposed significant criminal penalties in vessel pollution cases and the vast majority of such cases did not actually involve pollution in the United States, but rather efforts to conceal or cover up pollution that occurred elsewhere. In certain cases, responsible shipboard officers and shoreside officials have been sentenced to prison. In addition, the DOJ has required defendants to implement a comprehensive environmental compliance plan (“ECP”). If the Company is subjected to a DOJ criminal prosecution, it could face significant criminal penalties and defense costs as well as costs associated with the implementation of an ECP.
The CWA, enacted in 1972, prohibits the discharge of “pollutants,” which includes oil or hazardous substances, into navigable waters of the United States and imposes civil and criminal penalties for unauthorized discharges. The CWA complements the remedies available under OPA 90 and CERCLA.
The CWA also established the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (“NPDES”) permitting program, which governs discharges of pollutants into navigable waters of the United States. Pursuant to the NPDES, EPA issued a Vessel General Permit for Discharges Incidental to the Normal Operation of Vessels (“2008 VGP”), which was in effect from February 6, 2009 to December 19, 2013, covering 26 types of discharges incidental to normal vessel operations. The 2008 VGP was replaced by the Phase II VGP Regime ("2013 VGP"), which became effective on December 19, 2013. Like the 2008 VGP, the 2013 VGP applies to U.S. and foreign-flag commercial vessels that are at least 79 feet in length, and therefore applies to the Company’s vessels.
On February 11, 2011, the EPA and the USCG entered into a Memorandum of Understanding (“MOU”) outlining the steps the agencies will take to better coordinate efforts to implement and enforce the Vessel General Permit. Under the MOU, the USCG will identify and report to EPA detected Vessel General Permit deficiencies as a result of its normal boarding protocols for U.S.-flag and foreign-flag vessels. However, the EPA retains responsibility and enforcement authority to address Vessel General Permit violations. Failure to comply with the Vessel General Permit may result in civil or criminal penalties.
Like the 2008 VGP, the 2013 VGP requires vessel owners and operators to adhere to “best management practices” to manage the covered discharges, including ballast water, that occur normally in the operation of a vessel. In addition, again like the 2008 VGP, the 2013 VGP requires vessel owners and operators to implement various training, inspection, monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements, as well as corrective actions upon identification of a deficiency. The 2013 VGP, however, has implemented more stringent requirements than the 2008 VGP. For example, with regard to ballast water discharge standards, the 2008 VGP requirements for ballast water were minimal, whereas the 2013 VGP implements numeric technology-based effluent limitations that replace the non-numeric based best management practice requirements in the 2008 VGP. The purpose of these limitations is to reduce the number of living organisms discharged via ballast water into waters regulated by the 2013 VGP. The 2013 VGP also contains more stringent effluent limits for oil-to-sea interfaces and exhaust gas scrubber washwater, which seeks to improve environmental protection of U.S. waters, by requiring all vessels to use an Environmentally Acceptable Lubricant ("EAL") in all oil-to-sea interfaces, unless not technically feasible. The Company has filed a Notice of Intent to be covered by the 2013 VGP for each of the Company's ships.
Section 401(d) of the CWA permits individual states to attach additional limitations and requirements to federal permits, including the 2013 VGP, that are necessary to assure that the permit will comply with any applicable CWA-based effluent limitations and other limitations, standards of performance, prohibitions, effluent standards, or pretreatment standards, and with any other appropriate requirements of that state. Pursuant to this authority, several states have specified significant, additional requirements that became a condition of the 2013 VGP. As a result, in addition to the 2013 VGP requirements, a permit may not be issued until the owners and operators of a vessel have met specific state conditions in accordance with Section 401 of the CWA, if applicable. The 2013 VGP has resulted in increased requirements and may lead to increased enforcement by the EPA and the USCG that could result in an increase in the Company’s operating costs.

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Many countries have ratified and are thus subject to the liability scheme adopted by the International Maritime Organization (the “IMO”) and set out in the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage of 1969 (the "1969 Convention"). Some of these countries have also adopted the 1992 Protocol to the 1969 Convention (the "1992 Protocol"). Under both the 1969 Convention and the 1992 Protocol, a vessel's registered owner is strictly liable for pollution damage caused in the territorial waters of a contracting state by discharge of persistent oil, subject to certain complete defenses. These conventions also limit the liability of the shipowner under certain circumstances. As these conventions calculate liability in terms of Special Drawing Rights ("SDRs") as used by the International Monetary Fund, which are based on a basket of currencies, the figures in this section are converted into U.S. dollars based on currency exchange rates as of February 1, 2016. However, those rates fluctuate daily and the figures are accordingly subject to change.
Under the 1969 Convention, except where the owner is guilty of actual fault, its liability is limited to $183.25 per gross ton (a unit of measurement for the total enclosed spaces within a vessel) with a maximum liability of $19.3 million. Under the 1992 Protocol, the owner's liability is limited except where the pollution damage results from its personal act or omission, committed with the intent to cause such damage, or recklessly and with knowledge that such damage would probably result. Under the 2000 amendments to the 1992 Protocol, which became effective on November 1, 2003, liability is limited to $6.2 million plus $869.40 for each additional gross ton over 5,000 for vessels of 5,000 to 140,000 gross tons, and $123.7 million for vessels over 140,000 gross tons, subject to the exceptions discussed above for the 1992 Protocol.
Vessels trading to countries that are parties to these conventions must provide evidence of insurance covering the liability of the owner. The Company believes that its Protection and Indemnity ("P&I") insurance will cover any liability under the plan adopted by the IMO. See the discussion of Insurance below.
The United States is not a party to the 1969 Convention or the 1992 Protocol, and OPA 90, CERCLA, CWA and other federal and state laws apply in the United States as discussed above. In other jurisdictions where the 1969 Convention has not been adopted, various legislative schemes or common law govern, and liability is imposed either on the basis of fault or in a manner similar to that convention.
The International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage, 2001, which was adopted on March 23, 2001 and became effective on November 21, 2008, is a separate convention adopted to ensure that adequate, prompt and effective compensation is available to persons who suffer damage caused by spills of oil when used as fuel by vessels. The convention applies to damage caused to the territory, including the territorial sea, and in the exclusive economic zones, of countries that are party to it. While the United States has not yet ratified this convention, U.S.-flag vessels operating internationally would be subject to it if they sail within the territories of those countries that have implemented its provisions. The Company believes that its vessels comply with these requirements.
The National Invasive Species Act (“NISA”) was enacted in the United States in 1996 in response to growing reports of harmful organisms being released into United States waters through ballast water taken on by vessels in foreign ports. The USCG adopted regulations under NISA in July 2004 that impose mandatory ballast water management practices for all vessels equipped with ballast water tanks entering United States waters. These requirements can be met by performing mid-ocean ballast exchange, by retaining ballast water onboard the vessel, or by using environmentally sound ballast water treatment methods approved by the USCG. Mid-ocean ballast exchange is the primary method for compliance with the USCG regulations; alternative methods for ballast water treatment are still under development. Vessels that are unable to conduct mid-ocean ballast exchange due to voyage or safety concerns may discharge minimum amounts of ballast water, provided that they comply with record-keeping requirements and document the reasons they could not follow the required ballast water management requirements.
The USCG published a final rule on ballast water standards on March 23, 2012, which became effective on June 21, 2012. In most cases vessels will be required to install and operate a ballast water management system (“BWMS”) that has been type-approved by the USCG, unless ballast water can be managed by another approved method, such as disposal ashore, use of water from a U.S. public water system, or retaining ballast water aboard. A vessel's compliance date varies based upon its date of construction and ballast water capacity. All new vessels constructed on or after December 1, 2013, regardless of ballast water capacity, must comply with these requirements on delivery from the shipyard. Existing vessels with a ballast water capacity between 1500 and 5000 cubic meters must comply by their first scheduled drydocking after January 1, 2014. Existing vessels with a ballast water capacity less than 1500 cubic meters or greater than 5000 cubic meters must comply by their first scheduled drydocking after January 1, 2016. If a vessel intends to install a BWMS prior to the applicable compliance date and the USCG has not yet approved systems appropriate for the vessel's class or type, the vessel may install an Alternate Management System (“AMS”) that has been approved by a foreign-flag administration pursuant to the IMO's International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments, which was adopted on February 13, 2004 (the “BWM Convention”), if the USCG determines that it is at least as effective as ballast water exchanges. If an AMS is installed prior to the applicable compliance date, it may be used until five years after the compliance date, which should provide sufficient time for the manufacturer to obtain USCG approval. At present, however, no USCG-approved BWMS is available.

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In lieu of the AMS option, vessel owners and operators may request an extension of the BWMS requirements. Extension requests, with certain exceptions, must be submitted no later than 12 months before the vessel’s compliance date.  The EPA and the USCG have taken different positions regarding BWMS extensions. While the USCG is formally granting extensions to vessels that are unable to install the BWMS technology because it has not yet been type-approved, the EPA has declined to grant extensions of its ballast water requirements under the 2013 VGP, which went into effect on December 19, 2013. Therefore, even if a vessel obtains a USCG extension, it will still not be in compliance with the 2013 VGP. Pursuant to a joint letter issued by the USCG and the EPA dated December 24, 2013 and a letter of non-enforcement issued by the EPA dated December 27, 2013, the EPA has clarified that non-compliance with the 2013 VGP standards will be considered a violation, but that it will take into account extensions granted by the USCG and other factors and in such cases will consider the violation a low enforcement priority. The Company will seek extensions for all of its vessels until USCG approved ballast treatment systems are available.
In addition, states have enacted legislation or regulations to address invasive species through ballast water and hull cleaning management and permitting requirements, which in many cases have also become part of the state’s 2013 VGP certification. For instance, California requires vessels to comply with state ballast water discharge and hull fouling requirements. On October 8, 2015, the California legislature delayed implementation of California’s ballast water discharge performance standards until January 1, 2020. Although not yet implemented, California’s ballast water discharge performance standards are stronger than those scheduled to be implemented at the federal level. The federal government and the state of California permit the use of shipboard ballast water treatment systems to meet the discharge standards; however, the USCG requires that systems be type-approved by the USCG before they are installed on board vessels. California does not require advanced system approval, nor does the EPA under the 2013 VGP. As noted above, there are currently no type-approved systems by the USCG. Installation of an AMS on board vessels will satisfy California’s ballast water discharge performance standards. In addition, under the 2013 VGP, oceangoing vessels covered by the 2013 VGP are prohibited from discharging ballast water in Michigan waters unless the vessel meets Michigan state requirements and obtains a Michigan permit. New York has also imposed more stringent ballast water discharge standards, which became effective December 19, 2013 under the 2013 VGP. Currently, 25 states have added more stringent requirements to their certification of the 2013 VGP. Other states may proceed with the enactment of similar requirements that could increase the Company’s costs of operating in state waters.
The Company's vessels will also be subject to international ballast water management regulations, including those contained in the BWM Convention, which is not expected to enter force until 2017 at the earliest. After the BWM Convention enters into force, some of the Company's vessels may have to install an IMO approved BWMS irrespective of USCG extension to achieve compliance under the BWM Convention. To meet existing and anticipated ballast water treatment requirements, the Company has implemented ballast water management plans for each of its vessels and is developing, and intends to implement, a fleetwide action plan to comply with IMO, EPA, USCG and possibly more stringent U.S. state mandates which may require the installation and use of costly control technologies.
The Clean Air Act (as amended by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 and 1990, the “CAA”) was enacted in the United States in 1970 and required the EPA to promulgate standards applicable to emissions of volatile organic compounds and other air contaminants. The CAA also requires states to submit State Implementation Plans (“SIPs”), which are designed to attain national health-based air quality standards throughout the United States, including major metropolitan and/or industrial areas. Several SIPs regulate emissions resulting from vessel loading and unloading operations by requiring the installation of vapor control equipment. The EPA and some states have each proposed more stringent regulations of air emissions from propulsion and auxiliary engines on oceangoing vessels. For example, the California Air Resources Board in the State of California (“CARB”) has published regulations requiring oceangoing vessels visiting California ports to reduce air pollution through the use of marine distillate fuels once they sail within 24 miles of the California coastline effective July 1, 2009. CARB expanded the boundaries of where these requirements apply and began enforcing these new requirements on December 1, 2011. More stringent fuel oil requirements for marine gas oil went into effect on August 1, 2012.
The State of California also began, on January 1, 2010, implementing regulations on a phased-in basis that require vessels to either shut down their auxiliary engines while in port in California and use electrical power supplied at the dock or implement alternative means to significantly reduce emissions from the vessel’s electric power generating equipment while it is in port. Generally, a vessel will run its auxiliary engines while in port in order to power lighting, ventilation, pumps, communication and other onboard equipment. The emissions from running auxiliary engines while in port may contribute to particulate matter in the ambient air. The purpose of the regulations is to reduce the emissions from a vessel while it is in port. The cost of reducing vessel emissions while in port may be substantial if the Company determines that it cannot use or the ports will not permit the Company to use electrical power supplied at the dock. Alternatively, the ports may pass the cost of supplying electrical power at the port to the Company, and the Company may incur additional costs in connection with modifying the Company’s vessels to use electrical power supplied at the dock.
Annex VI of MARPOL, which addresses air emissions, including emissions of sulfur and nitrous oxide ("NOx"), from vessels, came into force in the United States on January 8, 2009. Annex VI requires the use of low sulfur fuels worldwide in both auxiliary and main propulsion diesel engines on vessels. Vessels worldwide are currently required to use fuel with a sulfur content

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no greater than 3.5%, which will be reduced to 0.5% by 2020. However, recommendations made in connection with a MARPOL fuel availability study scheduled for 2018 at the IMO may cause the 0.5% requirement to slip to 2025. Annex VI also imposes NOx emissions standards on installed marine diesel engines of over 130 kW output power other than those used solely for emergency purposes irrespective of the tonnage of the vessel into which such an engine is installed. Different levels, or Tiers, of control apply based on the vessel’s construction date (Tier I controls apply to vessels constructed on or after January 1, 2000, Tier II controls apply to certain vessels constructed on or after January 1, 2011, and Tier III controls apply to certain vessels constructed on or after January 1, 2016). Within any particular Tier, the actual NOx limit is determined from the engine’s rated speed on a sliding scale based on engine revolutions per minute. The Tier III controls apply only to the specified vessels while operating in an Emission Control Area (“ECA”), as discussed below, established to further limit NOx emissions. The Tier II controls apply to vessels operating in areas outside of ECAs.
More stringent sulfur and NOx requirements apply in designated ECAs. There are currently four ECAs worldwide, the Baltic Sea ECA, North Sea ECA, North American ECA, and U.S. Caribbean ECA. The North American ECA encompasses all waters, with certain limited exceptions, within 200 nautical miles of Hawaii and the U.S. and Canadian coasts. The U.S. Caribbean ECA includes waters adjacent to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands out to approximately 50 nautical miles from the coastline. As of January 1, 2015, vessels operating in an ECA must burn fuel with a sulfur content no greater than 0.1%. Further, marine diesel engines on vessels constructed on or after January 1, 2016 that are operated in an ECA must meet the stringent NOx standards described above.
All of the Company's vessels are operated in compliance with Annex VI. The EPA has received approval from the IMO to exempt and has exempted steamships from the 0.1% sulfur content fuel oil requirement until 2020. The Company, through its investment in a 50% or less owned company, has one U.S.-flag product tanker that is a steamship, which is covered by this exemption.
Annex VI of MARPOL contains requirements with respect to the prevention of air pollution by vessels and the issuance of International Air Pollution Prevention (“IAPP”) certificates to reflect compliance with those requirements. In July 2011, the IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee adopted amendments to MARPOL Annex VI that went into effect in the United States on January 1, 2013. These amendments created a new Chapter 4 to Annex VI, which established Regulations on Energy Efficiency for Ships that generally apply to all new and existing vessels of 400 or more gross tons, subject to certain exceptions. These regulations mandate that all new vessels have an Energy Efficiency Design Index (“EEDI”) as well as a Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (“SEEMP”). The EEDI, which is required for certain types of vessels that are newly constructed or undergo a major conversion after January 1, 2013, is a measure of the efficiency of a particular vessel’s power plant and its hull form that will be expressed in grams of carbon dioxide ("CO2") produced per the vessel’s capacity mile, which will be based on a formula using a factor of the distance traveled by the vessel times the cargo weight. It is expected that vessels that are currently excluded from these regulations will be included in the future when new formulas are developed. The EEDI requires a minimum energy efficiency level per capacity mile (tonnage mile) for different ship types, which is expected to be reduced incrementally every five years. As long as the required energy level is attained, ship designers and builders may use the most cost-effective measures of their choice to comply with these regulations. The SEEMP is an operational plan that establishes a mechanism to improve the energy efficiency of a vessel in a cost-effective manner. A SEEMP is required for all vessels in operation and does not have a required format, but it must be developed by the vessel operator taking into account guidelines adopted by the IMO in March 2012. The amendments to Annex VI also added requirements for the International Energy Efficiency (“IEE”) Certificate. For existing vessels, IEE Certificates are required to be issued no later than their first intermediate or renewal survey for their existing IAPP Certificate after January 1, 2013. Compliance with the SEEMP must also be demonstrated and verified at that time.
The International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships (the “AFS Convention”), which was adopted by the IMO on October 5, 2001 and went into effect on September 17, 2008, prohibits the use of certain harmful substances, known as organotins, in anti-fouling paints used on vessels. Effective November 21, 2012, vessels registered under the U.S.-flag must comply with the AFS Convention. The AFS Convention bans the application or use of tributyltin (an anti-fouling agent used on the hulls of vessels to prevent the growth of marine organisms), calls for its removal from existing anti-fouling systems and establishes a detailed and science-based mechanism to consider future restrictions of harmful substances in anti-fouling systems. The AFS Convention generally applies to vessels of 400 or more gross tons that are engaged in international voyages (excluding fixed or floating platforms, floating storage units ("FSUs") and floating production, storage and offloading units ("FPSOs")). Vessels subject to the AFS Convention must demonstrate compliance with the AFS through possession of an International Anti-fouling System (“IAFS”) Certificate. For U.S.-flag vessels subject to the AFS Convention, the USCG or a recognized class society will verify compliance and issue the IAFS Certificate. In addition to the United States, approximately 61 countries representing approximately 80% of the world’s tonnage have ratified the AFS Convention.
The Company’s operations occasionally generate and require the transportation, treatment and disposal of both hazardous and non-hazardous solid wastes that are subject in the United States to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (“RCRA”) or comparable state, local or foreign requirements. From time to time, the Company arranges for the disposal of hazardous waste or hazardous substances at offsite disposal facilities. With respect to the Company’s marine operations, the EPA

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has a longstanding policy that RCRA only applies after wastes are “purposely removed” from the vessel. As a general matter, with certain exceptions, vessel owners and operators are required to determine if their wastes are hazardous, obtain a generator identification number, comply with certain standards for the proper management of hazardous wastes, and use hazardous waste manifests for shipments to disposal facilities. The degree of RCRA regulation will depend on the amount of hazardous waste a generator generates in any given month. Moreover, vessel owners and operators may be subject to more stringent state hazardous waste requirements in those states where they land hazardous wastes. If such materials are improperly disposed of by third parties that the Company contracts with, the Company may still be held liable for cleanup costs under applicable laws.
Under MARPOL Annex V, which governs the discharge of garbage from ships, the special area for the Wider Caribbean region including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea went into effect on May 1, 2011. MARPOL defines certain sea areas as “special areas,” in which, for technical reasons relating to their oceanographical and ecological condition and to their sea traffic, the adoption of special mandatory methods for the prevention of sea pollution is required. Under MARPOL, these special areas are provided with a higher level of protection than other areas of the sea.
In addition, regulations addressing garbage management went into effect on January 1, 2013 pursuant to action taken by the IMO's Marine Environment Protection Committee in July 2011 after a comprehensive review of MARPOL Annex V. The new regulations impose stricter garbage management procedures and documentation requirements for all vessels and fixed and floating platforms, which will potentially have major implications for the shipping industry, as discussed below. The most significant change in the regulations is its general approach to garbage management. Under the prior regulations, discharge of garbage into the sea was generally allowed unless specifically prohibited or limited. This concept was reversed in the revised regulations, which impose a general prohibition on the discharge of all garbage unless the discharge is expressly provided for under the regulations. The regulations allow the limited discharge of only four categories: food waste; cargo residues; certain operational wastes not harmful to the marine environment; and carcasses of animals carried as cargo. Combined with the general prohibition on the discharge of garbage outside these limited categories, the regulations greatly reduce the amount of garbage that vessels will be able to dispose of at sea and have increased the Company's costs of disposing garbage remaining on board vessels at their port calls. The USCG published an interim rule on February 28, 2013 to implement these requirements in the United States effective April 1, 2013.
The Endangered Species Act, federal conservation regulations and comparable state laws protect species threatened with possible extinction. Protection of endangered and threatened species may include restrictions on the speed of vessels in certain ocean waters and may require the Company to change the routes of the Company’s vessels during particular periods. For example, in an effort to prevent the collision of vessels with the North Atlantic right whale, federal regulations restrict the speed of vessels to ten knots or less in certain areas along the Atlantic Coast of the United States during certain times of the year. The reduced speed and special routing along the Atlantic Coast results in the use of additional fuel, which affects the Company’s results of operations.
With regard to the regulation of emissions of certain gases, generally referred to as greenhouse gases, international conventions and federal, state and local laws and regulations have been considered or implemented to address the effects of such emissions on the environment. At the international level, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (the “Climate Change Convention”) went into effect on March 21, 1994 and provides an international framework for countries to negotiate specific international accords or protocols to establish binding limitations on greenhouse gas emissions. Pursuant to the Kyoto Protocol to the Climate Change Convention, which was adopted in Kyoto, Japan in December 1997 and went into effect on February 6, 2005 (the "Kyoto Protocol"), countries that are parties to the Climate Change Convention are required to implement national programs to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The detailed rules for the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol were adopted in Marrakesh, Morocco in 2001 and provided for an initial commitment period of 2008 to 2012, during which its parties were committed to achieving certain emission reduction targets.
At various United Nations climate change conferences, working groups have generally sought to establish emission reduction targets for developed countries, formulate a new climate change treaty and secure an extension of the Kyoto Protocol emissions limits to the extent that such a treaty is not yet achievable. On December 8, 2012, in Doha, Qatar, the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol ("Doha Amendment") was adopted to add a second commitment period running from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2020, during which the parties will be committed to certain reduction targets for greenhouse gas emissions. Once it is in force, the Doha Amendment will continue the Kyoto Protocol as a transitional measure and will establish a proposal for a more comprehensive international agreement post-2020.
The IMO's second study of greenhouse gas emissions from the global shipping fleet, which was concluded in 2009, predicted that, in the absence of appropriate policies, greenhouse emissions from ships may increase by 150% to 200% by 2050 due to expected growth in international seaborne trade. The IMO has announced its intention to develop limits on greenhouse gases from international shipping and is working on proposed mandatory technical and operational measures to achieve these limits. The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference resulted in the Paris Agreement, which aims to reduce emissions in an effort to slow global warming. However, the Paris Agreement will not become legally binding until agreed and adopted by at least 55 countries representing at least 55% of global greenhouse emissions.

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The European Union (“EU”) had indicated its intention to propose an expansion of the existing EU emissions trading scheme to include emissions of greenhouse gases from vessels, particularly if no international maritime emissions reduction targets were agreed to through the IMO or the Climate Change Convention by the end of 2011.  In 2011, the European Commission established a working group on shipping to provide input to the European Commission in its work to develop and assess options for the inclusion of international maritime transport in the EU's greenhouse gas reduction commitment.  In June 2013, the European Commission proposed legislation and established a strategy for progressively integrating maritime emissions into the EU’s policy for reducing domestic greenhouse emissions. This legislation, became effective July 1, 2015 and establishes a system for monitoring, reporting and verifying emissions from large ships calling at EU ports with the first reporting period beginning on January 1, 2018.
In the United States, pursuant to an April 2007 decision of the U.S. Supreme Court, the EPA was required to consider whether CO2 should be considered a pollutant that endangers public health and welfare, and thus subject to regulation under the CAA. In October 2007, the California Attorney General and a coalition of environmental groups petitioned the EPA to regulate greenhouse gas emissions from oceangoing vessels under the CAA. On January 1, 2009, the EPA began, for the first time, to require large emitters of greenhouse gases to collect and report data with respect to their greenhouse gas emissions. On December 1, 2009, the EPA issued an “endangerment finding” regarding greenhouse gases under the CAA. While this finding in itself does not impose any requirements on industry or other entities, the EPA is in the process of promulgating regulations of greenhouse gas emissions. To date, the regulations proposed and enacted by the EPA regarding CO2 have not involved oceangoing vessels. However, under MARPOL Annex VI, vessels operating in designated ECA's will be required to meet fuel sulfur limits and NOx emission limits, including the use of engines that meet the EPA standards for NOx emissions beginning in 2016, as discussed above.
Any future adoption of climate control treaties, legislation or other regulatory measures by the United Nations, IMO, EU, United States or other countries where the Company operates that restrict emissions of greenhouse gases could result in financial and operational impacts on the Company's business (including potential capital expenditures to reduce such emissions) that the Company cannot predict with certainty at this time. In addition, there may be significant physical effects of climate change from such emissions that have the potential to negatively impact the Company's personnel and physical assets and reduce the demand for the services offered by the Company.
The Company manages exposure to losses from the above-described laws through its efforts to use only well-maintained, well-managed and well-equipped facilities and vessels and its development of safety and environmental programs, including a maritime compliance program and its insurance program. The Company believes it will be able to accommodate reasonably foreseeable environmental regulatory changes subject to the comments above. There can be no assurance, however, that any future regulations or requirements or that any discharge or emission of pollutants by the Company will not have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Security
Heightened awareness of security needs brought about by the events of September 11, 2001 has caused the USCG, the IMO, states and local ports to adopt heightened security procedures relating to ports and vessels.
Specifically, on November 25, 2002, the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 (“MTSA”) was signed into law in the United States. To implement certain portions of MTSA, in July 2003, the USCG issued regulations requiring the implementation of certain security requirements aboard vessels operating in waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. Similarly, in December 2002, the IMO adopted amendments to SOLAS, known as the International Ship and Port Facilities Security Code (the “ISPS Code”), creating a new chapter dealing specifically with maritime security. The new chapter came into effect in July 2004 and imposes various detailed security obligations on vessels and port authorities. Among the various requirements under MTSA and/or the ISPS Code are:
onboard installation of automatic information systems to enhance vessel-to-vessel and vessel-to-shore communications;
onboard installation of ship security alert systems;
the development of vessel and facility security plans;
the implementation of a Transportation Worker Identification Credential program; and
compliance with flag state security certification requirements.
The USCG regulations, which are intended to align with international maritime security standards, generally deem foreign-flag vessels to be in compliance with MTSA vessel security measures provided such vessels have onboard a valid International Ship Security Certificate that attests to the vessel’s compliance with SOLAS security requirements and the ISPS Code. However, U.S.-flag vessels that are engaged in international trade must comply with all of the security measures required by MTSA, as well as SOLAS and the ISPS Code.

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The Company believes it has implemented the various security measures required by MTSA, SOLAS and the ISPS Code in light of the new requirements. Specifically, the Company has implemented security plans and procedures for each of its U.S.-flag vessels, its terminal operation in Sauget, Illinois, its alcohol manufacturing facility in Pekin, Illinois and its Port Dania facility in Dania Beach, Florida, pursuant to rules implementing MTSA that have been issued by the USCG. The Company’s U.S.-flag vessels subject to the requirements of the ISPS Code and its foreign-flag vessels are currently in compliance with ISPS Code requirements.
The International Safety Management Code (“ISM Code”), as promulgated by the IMO, provides international standards for the safe management and operation of ships and for the prevention of marine pollution from ships. The United States is bound to enforce the ISM Code for all U.S.-flag vessels and those foreign-flag vessels that call on U.S. ports. All of the Company’s vessels that are 500 or more gross tons are required to be certified under the standards set forth in the ISM Code’s safety and pollution protocols. The Company also voluntarily complies with these protocols for some vessels that are under the mandatory 500 gross ton threshold. Under the ISM Code, vessel operators are required to develop an extensive safety management system (“SMS”) that includes, among other things, the adoption of a written system of safety and environmental protection policies setting forth instructions and procedures for operating their vessels subject to the ISM Code, and describing procedures for responding to emergencies. The Company has developed such a safety management system. These SMS policies apply to both the vessel and shore-side personnel and are vessel specific. The ISM Code also requires a Document of Compliance (“DOC”) to be obtained for the vessel manager and a Safety Management Certificate (“SMC”) to be obtained for each vessel subject to the ISM Code that it operates or manages. Vessels and companies subject to the ISM Code are inspected regularly to ensure that the SMS is in place and effective. Upon successful inspection and verification of an effective SMS, a vessel is issued an SMC. No vessel can obtain such an SMC unless its operator or manager has been issued a DOC by the administration of that vessel's flag state or as otherwise permitted under SOLAS. The Company has obtained DOCs for its shore side offices that have responsibility for vessel management and SMCs for each of the vessels that such offices operate or manage. These DOCs and SMCs must be verified or renewed periodically (annually or less frequently, depending on the type of document) in accordance with the ISM Code.
IMO regulations also require owners and operators of vessels to adopt Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plans ("SOPEPs"). Periodic training and drills for response personnel and for vessels and their crews are required. To the extent that Company vessels carry noxious liquid substances, the Company has adopted Shipboard Marine Pollution Emergency Plans ("SMPEPs"), which cover potential releases not only of oil but also of any noxious liquid substances. A SMPEP under Regulation 17 of Annex II of MARPOL requires all vessels of 150 or more gross tons transporting noxious liquid substances in bulk to carry on board an approved marine pollution emergency plan for noxious liquid substances.
Noncompliance with the ISM Code and other IMO regulations may subject the shipowner or charterer to increased liability, may lead to decreases in available insurance coverage for affected vessels and may result in the denial of access to, or detention in, some ports. For example, the USCG authorities have indicated that vessels not in compliance with the ISM Code will be prohibited from trading to United States ports.
Industry Hazards and Insurance
Vessel operations involve inherent risks associated with carrying large volumes of cargo and rendering services in a marine environment. Hazards include adverse weather conditions, collisions, fire and mechanical failures, which may result in death or injury to personnel, damage to equipment, loss of operating revenues, contamination of cargo, pollution and other environmental damages and increased costs. The Company maintains hull, liability and war risk, general liability, workers compensation and other insurance customary in the industries in which the Company operates. The Company believes it will be able to renew any expiring policy without causing a material adverse effect on the Company. The Company also conducts training and safety programs to promote a safe working environment and minimize hazards.
Employees
As of December 31, 2015, the Company employed 4,849 individuals directly and indirectly through crewing or manning agreements. Substantially all indirect employees support Offshore Marine Services’ vessel operations.
As of December 31, 2015, Offshore Marine Services employed 856 seafarers in the North Sea and Brazil, some of whom were members of a union under the terms of an ongoing agreement. In the United States, a total of 407 employees in Inland River Services and Shipping Services were unionized under collective bargaining agreements that expire at varying times through September 30, 2017.
Management considers relations with its employees to be satisfactory.

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ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS
Risks, Uncertainties and Other Factors That May Affect Future Results
The Company’s results of operations, financial condition and cash flows may be adversely affected by numerous risks. Carefully consider the risks described below, which represent some of the more critical risk factors that affect the Company, as well as the other information that has been provided in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The risks described below include all known material risks faced by the Company. Additional risks not presently known may also impair the Company’s business operations.
Difficult economic conditions could materially adversely affect the Company. The success of the Company’s business is both directly and indirectly dependent upon conditions in the global financial markets and economic conditions throughout the world that are outside its control and difficult to predict. Continued uncertainty about global economic conditions may lead businesses to postpone spending in response to tighter credit and reductions in income or asset values and to cancel or renegotiate existing contracts. These factors may also adversely affect the Company’s liquidity and financial condition and the liquidity and financial condition of the Company’s customers. Factors such as interest rates, availability of credit, inflation rates, economic uncertainty, changes in laws (including laws relating to taxation), trade barriers, commodity prices, currency exchange rates and controls, and national and international political circumstances (including wars, terrorist acts or security operations) can have a material negative impact on the Company’s business and investments, which could reduce its revenues and profitability. Although the Company has some ongoing exposure to credit risks on its accounts receivable balances, these risks are heightened during periods when economic conditions worsen. The Company has procedures that are designed to monitor and limit exposure to credit risk on its receivables; however, there can be no assurance that such procedures will effectively limit its credit risk and avoid losses that could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial position and its results of operations. Unstable economic conditions may also increase the volatility of the Company’s stock price.
There are risks associated with the Company’s debt structure. The Company’s ability to meet its debt service obligations is dependent upon its future operating results, which are subject to general economic conditions, industry cycles and financial, business and other factors, many of which are beyond its control. The Company’s debt levels and the terms of its indebtedness may limit its liquidity and flexibility in obtaining additional financing and pursuing other business opportunities. In addition, the Company’s overall debt level and/or market conditions could lead the credit rating agencies to lower the Company’s corporate credit ratings, which could limit its ability to issue additional debt in amounts and/or on terms that it considers reasonable.
We are exposed to fluctuating prices of oil, decreased demand for oil, declining economic growth, and the oversupply of offshore vessels. The market for our offshore support services is impacted by the comparative price for exploring, developing, and producing oil, by the supply and cost of natural gas, and by the corresponding supply and demand for oil, both globally and regionally. Beginning in the second half of 2014 and through 2015, the price of oil has decreased from a high of $107 per barrel during 2014 to a low of $35 per barrel during 2015. The decline in oil prices has continued into 2016. Increased supply from the development of new oil and natural gas supply sources and technologies to improve recovery from current sources has contributed to the decrease in the price of oil. Other factors that influence supply and demand of oil include operational issues, natural disasters, weather, political instability, conflicts, economic conditions and actions by major oil-producing countries. These factors in turn affect the committed investment for contract drilling rigs and offshore support vessels used for offshore exploration, field development and production activities. Prolonged periods of low oil and gas prices or rising costs has resulted in projects being delayed or canceled, as well as the impairment of certain assets. Consequently, there has been a reduction in the demand for the Company's Offshore Marine Services because of the deterioration of oil prices due to weak international economic growth and strong U.S. oil and natural gas production along with the expectation of new sources of oil being available in the near future. Likewise, increases in industry refining or manufacturing capacity for both natural gas and oil sources other than those available offshore may further reduce margins. To the extent the low price of oil causes the Company's customers to reduce the level of capital expenditure for exploring, developing and producing oil, especially from offshore sources, it could affect demand for the equipment of Offshore Marine Services and Shipping Services, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, an increase in new offshore vessels to the existing fleet without a commensurate retirement of older vessels may lead to an oversupply of vessels.
Demand for many of the Company’s services is impacted by the level of activity in the offshore oil and natural gas exploration, development and production industry. The level of offshore oil and natural gas exploration, development and production activity has historically been volatile and that volatility is likely to continue. The level of activity is subject to large fluctuations in response to relatively minor changes in a variety of factors that are beyond the Company’s control, including:
general economic conditions;
prevailing oil and natural gas prices and expectations about future prices and price volatility;
assessments of offshore drilling prospects compared with land-based opportunities;

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the cost of exploring for, producing and delivering oil and natural gas offshore and the relative cost of doing so on land;
worldwide demand for energy, other petroleum products and chemical products;
availability and rate of discovery of new oil and natural gas reserves in offshore areas;
federal, state, local and international political and economic conditions, and policies including cabotage and local content laws;
technological advances affecting exploration, development, energy production and consumption;
weather conditions;
environmental regulation;
regulation of drilling activities and the availability of drilling permits and concessions; and
the ability of oil and natural gas companies to generate or otherwise obtain funds for capital projects.
The prolonged material downturn in oil and natural gas prices has caused a substantial decline in expenditures for exploration, development and production activity, which has resulted in a decline in demand and lower rates for the Company’s offshore energy support services and petroleum product transportation services. Any continued decline in expenditures could have an adverse effect on the Company's business, financial position, results of operations and cash flows. Moreover, for the year ended December 31, 2015, approximately 28% of Offshore Marine Services’ operating revenues were earned in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico and are therefore dependent on levels of activity in that region, which may differ from levels of activity in other regions of the world.
Failure to maintain an acceptable safety record may have an adverse impact on the Company’s ability to retain customers. The Company’s customers consider safety and reliability a primary concern in selecting a service provider. The Company must maintain a record of safety and reliability that is acceptable to its customers. Should this not be achieved, the ability to retain current customers and attract new customers may be adversely affected.
Adverse results of legal proceedings could materially adversely affect the Company. The Company is subject to and may in the future be subject to a variety of legal proceedings and claims that arise out of the ordinary conduct of its business. Results of legal proceedings cannot be predicted with certainty. Irrespective of its merits, litigation may be both lengthy and disruptive to the Company’s operations and may cause significant expenditure and diversion of management attention. The Company may be faced with significant monetary damages or injunctive relief against it that could materially adversely affect a portion of its business operations or materially and adversely affect the Company’s financial position and its results of operations should the Company fail to prevail in certain matters.
The Company may undertake one or more significant corporate transactions that may not achieve their intended results, may adversely affect the Company’s financial condition and its results of operations, and may result in additional risks to its businesses. The Company continuously evaluates the acquisition and disposition of operating businesses and assets and may in the future undertake significant transactions. Any such transaction could be material to the Company’s business and could take any number of forms, including mergers, joint ventures, investments in new lines of business and the purchase of equity interests or assets. The form of consideration associated with such transactions may include, among other things, cash, common stock or equity interests in the Company’s subsidiaries. The Company also evaluates the disposition of its operating businesses and assets, in whole or in part, which could take the form of asset sales, mergers or sales of equity interests in its subsidiaries (privately or through a public offering), or the spin-off of equity interests of the Company’s subsidiaries to its stockholders.
For instance, on December 1, 2015, the Company announced the issuance by SMH of its 3.75% Convertible Senior Notes and that the Company is contemplating a potential spin-off of SMH to SEACOR's shareholders. We are not obligated to effect the SMH Spin-off and no assurance can be given that the Company will choose to do so. If the Company does consummate the SMH Spin-off, no assurance can be given that the Company will achieve the intended results. These types of significant transactions may present significant risks and uncertainties, including distraction of management from current operations, insufficient revenue to offset liabilities assumed, potential loss of significant revenue and income streams, unexpected expenses, inadequate return of capital, potential acceleration of taxes currently deferred, regulatory or compliance issues, the triggering of certain covenants in the Company’s debt instruments (including accelerated repayment) and other unidentified issues not discovered in due diligence. As a result of the risks inherent in such transactions, the Company cannot guarantee that any such transaction will ultimately result in the realization of the anticipated benefits of the transaction or that significant transactions will not have a material adverse impact on the Company’s financial condition or its results of operations. If the Company were to complete such an acquisition, disposition, investment or other strategic transaction, it may require additional debt or equity financing that could result in a significant increase in its amount of debt or the number of outstanding shares of its Common Stock.

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Investment in new business strategies and initiatives present risks not originally contemplated. The Company has invested, and in the future may again invest, in new business plans or acquisitions, some of which may not be directly linked to existing business lines or activities. These activities may involve significant risks and uncertainties, including distraction of management from current operations, insufficient revenue to offset liabilities assumed and expenses associated with the plans or acquisitions, inadequate return of capital and unidentified issues not discovered in due diligence. Investments in these positions also may involve securities or other assets that are not very liquid. As a result of the risks inherent in new ventures, there can be no assurance that any such venture will be successful, or that new ventures will not have a material adverse impact on the Company’s financial position and its results of operations.
The Company engages in hedging activities which expose it to risks. For corporate purposes and also as part of its trading activities, the Company may use futures and swaps to hedge risks, such as escalation in fuel costs, the cost of agricultural materials, movements in foreign exchange rates and interest rates. With respect to ethanol, the Company may attempt to offset the effects of volatility by entering into forward contracts to sell a portion of its ethanol or purchase a portion of its corn requirements. The Company also may use other hedging transactions involving exchange-traded futures contracts for corn and ethanol. However, hedging activities can themselves result in losses when a position is purchased in a declining market or a position is sold in a rising market. The Company may also purchase inventory in larger than usual levels to lock-in costs when it believes there may be large increases in the price of raw materials or other materials used in its businesses. Such purchases expose the Company to risks of meeting margin calls and drawing on its capital, counterparty risk due to failure of an exchange or institution with which it has done a swap, incurring higher costs than competitors or similar businesses that do not engage in such strategies, and losses on its investment portfolio. Such strategies can also cause earnings to be volatile. If the Company fails to offset such volatility, its results of operations, cash flows and financial position may be adversely affected.
The Company’s operations in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico have been adversely impacted by the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig accident and resulting oil spill. On April 22, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon, a semi-submersible deepwater drilling rig operating in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, sank after an apparent blowout and fire resulting in a significant flow of hydrocarbons from the BP Macondo well (the “Deepwater Horizon/BP Macondo Well Incident”). The Company and its customers have extensive operations in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. New or additional government regulations or laws concerning drilling operations in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico and other regions implemented in response to a specific incident or otherwise could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial position and its results of operations.
The Company could incur liability in connection with its provision of spill response services. The Company provided spill and emergency response services, including in response to the Deepwater Horizon/BP Macondo Well Incident. Several of the Company’s business segments are currently defendants in litigation arising from the Deepwater Horizon/BP Macondo Well Incident and the Company expects it may be named in additional litigation regarding its response services. Although companies are generally exempt in the United States from liability under the CWA for their own actions and omissions in providing spill response services, this exemption might not apply if a company were found to have been grossly negligent or to have engaged in willful misconduct, or if it were to have failed to provide these services consistent with the National Contingency Plan or as otherwise directed under the CWA. In addition, the exemption under the federal CWA would not protect a company against liability for personal injury or wrongful death claims, or against prosecution under other federal or state laws. All of the coastal states of the United States in which the Company provides services have adopted similar exemptions, but, several inland states have not. If a court or other applicable authority were to determine that the Company does not benefit from federal or state exemptions from liability in providing emergency response services, or if the other defenses asserted by the Company and its business segments are rejected, the Company could be liable together with the local contractor and the responsible party for any resulting damages, including damages caused by others, subject to the indemnification provisions and other liability terms and conditions negotiated with its domestic customers. In the international market, the Company does not benefit from the spill response liability protection provided by the CWA and, therefore, is subject to the liability terms and conditions negotiated with its international clients, in addition to any other defenses available to the Company and its business segments. In connection with claims relating to clean-up operations following the Deepwater Horizon/BP Macondo Well Incident, the responsible party acknowledged and agreed to indemnify and defend one of the Company’s business segments pursuant and subject to certain contractual agreements. See "Item 3. Legal Proceedings."
If Congress repeals the $75.0 million cap for non-reclamation liabilities under OPA 90 or otherwise scales back the protections afforded to contractors thereunder, there may be increased exposure for remediation work and the cost for securing insurance for such work may become prohibitively expensive. Without affordable insurance and appropriate legislative regulation limiting liability, drilling, exploration, remediation and further investment in oil and gas exploration in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico may be discouraged and thus reduce the demand for the Company’s services.
The Company could incur liability in connection with certain obligations relating to the Deepwater Horizon incident. In connection with the Deepwater Horizon/BP Macondo Well Incident, BP Exploration & Production, Inc. and BP America Production Company engaged the services of O'Brien's Response Management, L.L.C. ("ORM"), a subsidiary of the Company, and NRC, which was a subsidiary of the Company at the time operating in the Company's now discontinued Environmental

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Services segment. ORM and NRC were subsequently made defendants in litigation arising from the Deepwater Horizon/BP Macondo Well Incident and the Company expects that these entities may be named in additional litigation regarding their response services. In connection with claims relating to clean-up operations following the Deepwater Horizon/BP Macondo Well Incident, the responsible party acknowledged and agreed to indemnify and defend ORM and NRC pursuant and subject to certain contractual agreements and potential limitations. On March 16, 2012, the Company sold NRC to JFL. In connection with this transaction, the Company entered into an indemnification agreement pursuant to which it agreed to indemnify JFL and certain of its affiliates for damages relating to specified claims arising from the Deepwater Horizon/BP Macondo Well Incident to the extent the responsible party breaches its indemnity obligations or is not obligated to indemnify NRC, subject to a negotiated cap and subject to a post-closing working capital adjustment and contingent consideration equal to a portion of the revenue generated by any extraordinary oil spill response that occurs within three years following the closing. No assurance can be given that the responsible party will honor its obligation to indemnify us or JFL under these arrangements. If the responsible party were to fail to honor it obligations, the Company may be faced with significant monetary payments that could materially and adversely affect the Company's financial position and its results of operations.
Negative publicity may adversely impact the Company. Media coverage and public statements that insinuate improper actions by the Company, regardless of their factual accuracy or truthfulness, may result in negative publicity, litigation or governmental investigations by regulators. Addressing negative publicity and any resulting litigation or investigations may distract management, increase costs and divert resources. Negative publicity may have an adverse impact on the Company’s reputation and the morale of its employees, which could adversely affect the Company’s financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Increased domestic and international laws and regulations may adversely impact the Company. Changes in laws or regulations regarding offshore oil and gas exploration and development activities and technical and operational measures, including those imposed in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon/BP Macondo Well Incident, may increase the Company's costs and the costs of its customers' operations and may influence decisions by customers or other industry participants that could reduce the demand for the Company’s services, which would have a negative impact on the Company’s Offshore Marine Services segment.
Risks from the Company’s international operations. The Company operates vessels and transacts other business worldwide. Its ability to compete in international markets may be adversely affected by foreign government regulations that favor or require the awarding of contracts to local competitors, or that require foreign persons to employ citizens of, or purchase supplies from, a particular jurisdiction. Further, the Company’s foreign subsidiaries may face governmentally imposed restrictions on their ability to transfer funds to their parent company.
Activity outside the United States involves additional risks, including the possibility of:
United States embargoes or restrictive actions by U.S. and foreign governments that could limit the Company’s ability to provide services in foreign countries or cause retaliatory actions by such governments;
a change in, or the imposition of, withholding or other taxes on foreign income, tariffs or restrictions on foreign trade and investment;
limitations on the repatriation of earnings or currency exchange controls and import/export quotas;
local cabotage and local ownership laws and requirements;
nationalization, expropriation, asset seizure, blockades and blacklisting;
limitations in the availability, amount or terms of insurance coverage;
loss of contract rights and inability to enforce contracts;
political instability, war and civil disturbances or other risks that may limit or disrupt markets, such as terrorist acts, piracy and kidnapping;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates, hard currency shortages and controls on currency exchange that affect demand for the Company’s services and its profitability;
potential noncompliance with a wide variety of laws and regulations, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (the “FCPA”), and similar non-U.S. laws and regulations, including the U.K. Bribery Act 2010;
labor strikes;
import or export quotas and other forms of public and government regulation;
changes in general economic and political conditions; and
difficulty in staffing and managing widespread operations.

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Unstable political, military and economic conditions in foreign countries where a significant proportion of Offshore Marine Services’ operations are conducted could adversely impact the Company’s business. During the year ended December 31, 2015, approximately 68% of Offshore Marine Services’ operating revenues resulted from its foreign operations. These operations are subject to risks, including potential vessel seizure, terrorist acts, piracy, kidnapping, nationalization of assets, currency restrictions, import or export quotas and other forms of public and government regulation, all of which are beyond the Company’s control. Economic sanctions or an oil embargo, for example, could have significant impact on activity in the oil and gas industry and, correspondingly, on the Company should Offshore Marine Services operate vessels in a country subject to any sanctions or embargo, or in the surrounding region to the extent any sanctions or embargo disrupts its operations.
Offshore Marine Services, Inland River Services, Shipping Services and Illinois Corn Processing rely on several customers for a significant share of their revenues, the loss of any of which could adversely affect each of their businesses and operating results. As of December 31, 2015, no single customer accounted for more than 10% of the Company's operating revenues. The portion of Offshore Marine Services, Inland River Services, Shipping Services and Illinois Corn Processing's revenues attributable to any single customer may change over time, depending on the level of relevant activity by any such customer, the segment’s ability to meet the customer’s needs and other factors, many of which are beyond the Company’s control. The loss of any large customer or several mid-size customers could have a material and adverse effect on such segment’s or the Company’s financial position or its results of operations.
Consolidation of the Company’s customer base could adversely affect demand for its services and reduce its revenues. In recent years, oil and natural gas companies, energy companies and drilling contractors have undergone substantial consolidation and additional consolidation is possible. Consolidation results in fewer companies to charter or contract for the Company’s services. Also, merger activity among both major and independent oil and natural gas companies affects exploration, development and production activity as the consolidated companies integrate operations to increase efficiency and reduce costs. Less promising exploration and development projects of a combined company may be dropped or delayed. Such activity may result in an exploration and development budget for a combined company that is lower than the total budget of both companies before consolidation, which could adversely affect demand for the Company’s Offshore Marine Services’ vessels and Shipping Services’ tankers thereby reducing the Company’s revenues.
The improved economics of producing natural gas and oil from shale may result in a decrease in offshore oil and gas drilling that could adversely affect the Company.  The rise in production of natural gas and oil, particularly from onshore shale, as a result of improved drilling efficiencies that are lowering the costs of extraction, may result in a reduction of capital invested in offshore oil and gas exploration.  Because Offshore Marine Services provides vessels servicing offshore oil and gas exploration, a significant reduction in investments in offshore exploration and development would have a material adverse effect on the Company's operations and financial position.
The Company may be unable to maintain or replace its offshore support vessels as they age. As of December 31, 2015, the average age of the Company’s Offshore Marine Services’ vessels, excluding its standby safety and wind farm utility vessels, was approximately twelve years. The Company believes that after an offshore support vessel has been in service for approximately 20 years, the expense (which typically increases with age) necessary to satisfy required marine certification standards may not be economically justifiable. The Company may be unable to carry out drydockings of its vessels or may be limited by insufficient shipyard capacity, which could adversely affect its ability to maintain its vessels. In addition, market conditions may not justify these expenditures or enable the Company to operate its older vessels profitably during the remainder of their economic lives. There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to maintain its fleet by extending the economic life of existing vessels, or that its financial resources will be sufficient to enable it to make expenditures necessary for these purposes or to acquire or build replacement vessels.
An increase in the supply of vessels, barges or equipment the Company operates could have an adverse impact on the charter rates earned by the Company’s vessels, barges and equipment. Expansion of the supply of vessels, barges and equipment would increase competition in the markets in which the Company operates. The refurbishment of disused or “mothballed” vessels and barges, conversion of vessels from uses other than oil and gas exploration and production support and related activities or construction of new vessels, barges and equipment could all add vessel, barge and equipment capacity to current worldwide levels. A significant increase in vessel, barge and equipment capacity could lower charter rates and result in lower operating revenues.
If the Company does not restrict the amount of ownership of its Common Stock by non-U.S. citizens, it could be prohibited from operating offshore support vessels, inland river vessels and barges and tankers in the United States, which would adversely impact its business and operating results. The Company is subject to the Jones Act, which governs, among other things, the ownership and operation of offshore support vessels, tankers and barges used to carry cargo between U.S. ports. Subject to limited exceptions, the Jones Act requires that vessels engaged in the U.S. coastwise trade be built in the United States, registered under the U.S. flag, manned by predominantly U.S. crews, and owned and operated by U.S. citizens within the meaning of the Jones Act. Although SEACOR’s Restated Certificate of Incorporation and by-laws contain provisions intended to assure compliance with these provisions of the Jones Act, a failure to maintain compliance would adversely affect the Company’s financial position and its results of operations and the Company would be prohibited from operating vessels in the U.S. coastwise trade

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during any period in which the Company does not comply or cannot demonstrate to the satisfaction of the relevant governmental authorities the Company’s compliance with the Jones Act. In addition, the Company could be subject to fines and its vessels could be subject to seizure and forfeiture for violations of the Jones Act and the related U.S. vessel documentation laws.
Repeal, Amendment, Suspension or Non-Enforcement of the Jones Act would result in additional competition for Offshore Marine Services, Shipping Services and Inland River Services and could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business. A substantial portion of the operations of Offshore Marine Services, Shipping Services and Inland River Services are conducted in the U.S. coastwise trade. Subject to limited exceptions, the Jones Act requires that vessels engaged in U.S. coastwise trade be built in the United States, registered under the U.S. flag, manned by predominantly U.S. crews, and owned and operated by U.S. citizens within the meaning of the Jones Act. There have been attempts to repeal or amend such provisions, and such attempts are expected to continue in the future. Repeal, substantial amendment or waiver of such provisions would result in additional competition from vessels built in lower-cost foreign shipyards, owned and manned by foreign nationals with promotional foreign tax incentives and with lower wages and benefits than U.S. citizens, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial position and its results of operations. In addition, the Company’s advantage as a U.S.-citizen operator of Jones Act vessels could be eroded by periodic efforts and attempts by foreign interests to circumvent certain aspects of the Jones Act. If maritime cabotage services were included in the General Agreement on Trade in Services, the North American Free Trade Agreement or other international trade agreements, or if the restrictions contained in the Jones Act were otherwise altered, the shipping of maritime cargo between covered U.S. ports could be opened to foreign-flag or foreign-built vessels. Because foreign vessels may have lower construction costs and operate at significantly lower costs than companies operating in the U.S. coastwise trade, such a change could significantly increase competition in the U.S. coastwise trade, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The Company's investment in Jones Act product carriers could be negatively impacted if the Jones Act is suspended or repealed, or if the price of natural gas increase to levels that reduce the competitiveness of U.S. refineries. The investment in Jones Act product carriers could also be improvident if all existing tankers and tank barges are replaced with additional newly built equipment when they come to the end of their economic life. The repeal on December 18, 2015 of the law restricting the export of U.S. crude oil may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition. The Company also has a significant investment in a Company that uses VLGC's in the foreign Liquefied Petroleum Gas ("LPG") trade. If the expected rise in production of LPG in the U.S. does not occur, or if most of the production of LPG is consumed domestically in petrochemical plants, or if the price of propane and butane increases to levels that lower demand, this investment may decrease in value.
Restrictions on non-U.S. citizen ownership of the Company’s vessels could limit its ability to sell off any portion of its business or result in the forfeiture of its vessels. Compliance with the Jones Act requires that non-U.S. citizens own no more than 25% in the entities that directly or indirectly own the vessels that the Company operates in the U.S. coastwise trade. If the Company were to seek to sell any portion of its business that owns any of these vessels, it would have fewer potential purchasers, since some potential purchasers might be unable or unwilling to satisfy the U.S. citizenship restrictions described above. As a result, the sales price for that portion of the Company’s business may not attain the amount that could be obtained in an unregulated market. Furthermore, if at any point the Company or any of the entities that directly or indirectly own its vessels cease to satisfy the requirements to be a U.S. citizen within the meaning of the Jones Act, the Company would become ineligible to operate in the U.S. coastwise trade and may become subject to penalties and risk forfeiture of its vessels.
SEACOR’s certificate of incorporation limits the ownership of Common Stock by individuals and entities that are not U.S. citizens within the meaning of the Jones Act. These restrictions may affect the liquidity of SEACOR’s Common Stock and may result in non-U.S. citizens being required to sell their shares at a loss or relinquish their voting, dividend and distribution rights. Under the Jones Act, at least 75% of the outstanding shares of each class or series of SEACOR’s capital stock must be owned and controlled by U.S. citizens within the meaning of the Jones Act. Certain provisions of SEACOR’s certificate of incorporation are intended to facilitate compliance with this requirement and may have an adverse effect on holders of shares of the Common Stock. In addition, the 2.5% Convertible Senior Notes due 2027 and the 3.0% Convertible Notes due 2028 issued by the Company and the 3.75% Convertible Senior Notes due 2022 issued by SMH, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, which, under limited circumstances, may be exchanged for shares of the Company’s Common Stock or warrants to purchase the Company’s Common Stock, have controls in place that are designed to ensure compliance with the Jones Act.
Under the provisions of SEACOR’s Restated Certificate of Incorporation, the aggregate percentage of ownership by non-U.S. citizens of any class of SEACOR’s capital stock (including Common Stock) is limited to 22.5% of the outstanding shares of each such class to ensure that such ownership by non-U.S. citizens will not exceed the maximum percentage permitted by the Jones Act, which is presently 25%. The Restated Certificate of Incorporation authorizes SEACOR’s Board of Directors, under certain circumstances, to increase the foregoing permitted percentage to 24%. The Restated Certificate of Incorporation further provides that any issuance or transfer of shares to non-U.S. citizens in excess of such permitted percentage shall be ineffective as against the Company and that neither the Company nor its transfer agent shall register such purported issuance or transfer of shares to non-U.S. citizens or be required to recognize the purported transferee or owner as a stockholder of the Company for any purpose

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whatsoever except to exercise the Company’s remedies. Any such excess shares in the hands of a non-U.S. citizen shall not have any voting or dividend rights and are subject to redemption by the Company in its discretion. The liquidity or market value of the shares of Common Stock may be adversely impacted by such transfer restrictions.
As a result of the above provisions, a proposed transferee of the Common Stock that is a non-U.S. citizen may not receive any return on its investment in shares it purportedly purchases or owns, as the case may be, and it may sustain a loss. The Company, in its discretion, is entitled to redeem all or any portion of such shares most recently acquired (as determined by its Board of Directors in accordance with guidelines that are set forth in its Restated Certificate of Incorporation) by non-U.S. citizens in excess of such maximum permitted percentage for such class or series at a redemption price based on a fair market value formula that is set forth in the Company’s Restated Certificate of Incorporation, which may be paid in cash or promissory notes at the discretion of the Company. Such excess shares shall also not be accorded any voting, dividend or distribution rights until they have ceased to be excess shares, provided that they have not been already redeemed by the Company. As a result of these provisions, a purported stockholder who is not a U.S. citizen within the meaning of the Jones Act may be required to sell its shares of Common Stock at an undesirable time or price and may not receive any return on its investment in such shares. Further, the Company may have to incur additional indebtedness, or use available cash (if any), to fund all or a portion of such redemption, in which case the Company’s financial condition may be materially weakened.
So that the Company may ensure its compliance with the Jones Act, its Restated Certificate of Incorporation permits it to require that owners of any shares of its capital stock provide confirmation of their citizenship. In the event that a person does not submit such documentation to the Company, its Restated Certificate of Incorporation provides the Company with certain remedies, including the suspension of the payment of dividends and distributions with respect to those shares and deposit of any such dividends and distributions into an escrow account. As a result of non-compliance with these provisions, an owner of the shares of the Company’s Common Stock may lose significant rights associated with those shares.
In addition to the risks described above, the foregoing foreign ownership restrictions could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or change in control that might involve a premium price for the Company’s Common Stock or otherwise be in the best interest of the Company’s stockholders.
If non-U.S. citizens own more than 22.5% of SEACOR’s Common Stock, the Company may not have the funds or the ability to redeem any excess shares and it could be forced to suspend its operations in the U.S. coastwise trade. SEACOR’s Restated Certificate of Incorporation contains provisions prohibiting ownership of its Common Stock by persons who are not U.S. citizens within the meaning of the Jones Act, in the aggregate, in excess of 22.5% of such shares. In addition, the Restated Certificate of Incorporation permits the Company to redeem such excess shares, including those shares issued upon conversion or exchange of the Company's convertible notes. The per share redemption price may be paid, as determined by the Company’s Board of Directors, by cash or promissory notes. However, the Company may not be able to redeem such excess shares for cash because its operations may not have generated sufficient excess cash flow to fund such redemption. If, for any reason, the Company is unable to effect such a redemption when such ownership of shares by non-U.S. citizens is in excess of 25.0% of the Common Stock, or otherwise prevent non-U.S. citizens in the aggregate from owning shares in excess of 25.0% of any such class or series of the Company’s capital stock, or fail to exercise its redemption rights because it is unaware that such ownership exceeds such percentage, the Company will likely be unable to comply with the Jones Act and will likely be required by the applicable governmental authorities to suspend its operations in the U.S. coastwise trade. Any such actions by governmental authorities would have a severely detrimental impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, as amended, provides the federal government with broad discretion in regulating the leasing of offshore resources for the production of oil and gas. Because Offshore Marine Services’ operations rely on offshore oil and gas exploration and production, the government’s exercise of authority under the provisions of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act to restrict the availability of offshore oil and gas leases could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
Operational risks could disrupt operations and expose the Company to liability. The operation of offshore support vessels, tankers, short-sea container, roll-on/roll-off vessels, towboats, tugs and barges is subject to various risks, including catastrophic disaster, adverse weather, mechanical failure and collision. For instance, the Company's operations in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico may be adversely affected by weather. The Atlantic Hurricane season runs from June through November. Tropical storms and hurricanes may limit our ability to operate the Company's vessels in the proximity of storms, reduce oil and gas exploration, development and production activity, could result in the Company incurring additional expenses to secure equipment and facilities and may require the Company to evacuate its vessels, personnel and equipment out of the path of a storm. Additional risks to vessels include adverse sea conditions, capsizing, grounding, oil and hazardous substance spills and navigation errors. These risks could endanger the safety of the Company’s personnel, equipment, cargo and other property, as well as the environment. If any of these events were to occur, the Company could be held liable for resulting damages, including loss of revenues from or termination of charter contracts, higher insurance rates, increased operating costs, increased governmental regulation and reporting and damage to the Company’s reputation and customer relationships. In addition, the affected vessels could be removed from service and would then not be available to generate revenues.

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Revenues from Shipping Services could be adversely affected by a decline in demand for domestic refined petroleum products, crude oil or chemical products, or a change in existing methods of delivery. A reduction in domestic consumption of refined petroleum products, crude oil or chemical products, the development of alternative methods of delivery of refined petroleum products or crude oil, or a reduction in domestic refining capacity could reduce demand for the Company’s services.
Construction of additional refined petroleum product, natural gas or crude oil pipelines could have a material adverse effect on Shipping Services’ revenues. Long-haul transportation of refined petroleum products, crude oil and natural gas is generally less costly by pipeline than by tanker. Existing pipeline systems are either insufficient to meet demand in, or do not reach, all of the markets served by Shipping Services’ tankers. The construction and operation of new pipeline segments could have a material and adverse effect on Shipping Services’ business.
The Company is subject to complex laws and regulations, including environmental laws and regulations that can adversely affect the cost, manner or feasibility of doing business. Increasingly stringent federal, state, local and international laws and regulations governing worker safety and health and the manning, construction and operation of vessels significantly affect the Company’s operations. Many aspects of the marine industry are subject to extensive governmental regulation by the USCG, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (“OSHA”), NTSB, EPA, IMO, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, the U.S. Maritime Administration, and the CBP, and to regulation by port states and classification societies (such as the American Bureau of Shipping), as well as to regulation under international treaties, such as SOLAS and MARPOL, administered by port states and classification societies. The USCG, OSHA and NTSB set safety standards and are authorized to investigate marine casualties and recommend improved safety standards. The CBP and USCG are authorized to inspect vessels at will.
The Company’s business and operations are also subject to federal, state, local and international laws and regulations that control the discharge of oil and hazardous materials into the environment or otherwise relate to environmental protection and occupational safety and health. Compliance with such laws and regulations may require installation of costly equipment or operational changes, and the phase-out of certain product tankers. Failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations may result in administrative and civil penalties, criminal sanctions or the suspension or termination of the Company’s operations. Some environmental laws impose strict and, under certain circumstances, joint and several liability for remediation of spills and releases of oil and hazardous materials and damage to natural resources, which could subject the Company to liability without regard to whether it was negligent or at fault. Under OPA 90, owners, operators and bareboat charterers are jointly and severally strictly liable for the removal costs and damages resulting from the discharge of oil within the 200 mile exclusive economic zone around the United States. In addition, an oil spill could result in significant liability, including fines, penalties, criminal liability and costs for natural resource and other damages under other federal and state laws and civil actions. These laws and regulations may expose the Company to liability for the conduct of or conditions caused by others, including charterers. Moreover, these laws and regulations could change in ways that substantially increase the Company’s costs. The Company cannot be certain that existing laws, regulations or standards, as currently interpreted or reinterpreted in the future, or future laws and regulations will not have a material adverse effect on its business, results of operations and financial condition. Regulation of the shipping industry will likely continue to become more stringent and more expensive for the Company. In addition, a serious marine incident occurring in U.S. waters that results in significant oil pollution could result in additional regulation. Additional environmental and other requirements, as well as more stringent enforcement policies, may be adopted that could limit the Company’s ability to operate, require the Company to incur substantial additional costs or otherwise have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, results of operations or financial condition. For more information, see Item 1. “Government Regulation - Environmental Compliance.”
Inland River Services could experience variation in freight rates. Freight transportation rates may fluctuate as the volume of cargo and availability of barges change. The volume of freight transported on inland river waterways may vary as a result of various factors, such as global economic conditions and business cycles, domestic and international agricultural production and demand, and foreign currency exchange rates. Barge participation in the industry can also vary year-to-year and is dependent on the number of barges built and retired from service. Extended periods of high barge availability and low cargo demand could adversely impact Inland River Services.
Inland River Services’ results of operations could be adversely affected by the decline in U.S. grain exports. Inland River Services’ business is significantly affected by the volume of grain exports handled through ports in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. Grain exports can vary due to a number of factors including crop harvest yield levels in the United States and abroad, and the demand for grain in the United States. A shortage of available grain overseas can increase demand for U.S. grain. Conversely, an abundance of grain overseas can decrease demand for U.S. grain. A decline in exports could result in excess barge capacity, which would likely lower freight rates earned by Inland River Services.
Inland River Services’ results of operations could be adversely affected by international economic and political factors. The actions of foreign governments could affect the import and export of the dry bulk commodities typically transported by Inland River Services. Foreign trade agreements and each country’s adherence to the terms of such agreements can raise or lower demand for U.S. imports and exports of the dry bulk commodities that Inland River Services transports. National and international boycotts and embargoes of other countries or U.S. imports or exports together with the raising or lowering of tariff rates could affect the

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demand for the transportation of cargoes handled by Inland River Services. These actions or developments could have an adverse impact on Inland River Services.
Inland River Services’ results of operations are affected by seasonal activity. Inland River Services’ business is seasonal, and its quarterly revenues and profits have historically been lower in the first and second quarters of the year and higher in the third and fourth quarters, during the grain harvest.
Inland River Services’ results of operations are affected by adverse weather and river conditions. Weather patterns, such as excessive rainfall or drought, can affect river levels and cause ice conditions during winter months, which can hamper barge navigation. Locks and dams on river systems may be closed for maintenance or other causes, which may delay barge movements. These conditions could adversely impact Inland River Services.
The aging infrastructure on the U.S. Inland River Waterways may lead to increased costs and disruptions in Inland River Services’ operations. Many of the locks and dams on the U.S. Inland River Waterways were built early in the last century, and their age makes them costly to maintain and susceptible to unscheduled maintenance outages. Delays caused by malfunctioning locks and dams could increase Inland River Services’ operating costs and delay the delivery of cargoes. Moreover, in the future, increased user taxes could be imposed to fund necessary infrastructure improvements, and such increases may not be recoverable by Inland River Services through pricing increases. The foregoing risks could also make inland barge transport less competitive than rail.
Inland River Services’ results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by fuel price fluctuations. For the most part, Inland River Services purchases towboat and fleeting services from third party vendors. The price of these services can rise when fuel prices escalate and could adversely impact Inland River Services’ results of operation.
The results of ICP’s ethanol operations are principally reliant on managing the volatility and uncertainty associated with the spread between the prices of corn, natural gas, alcohol, and distillers grains. The results of the Company's alcohol manufacturing business, ICP, are significantly affected by commodity prices and, in particular, the spread between the input costs of corn and natural gas that ICP purchases compared with the output prices of alcohol and distillers grains that it sells. Market forces that ICP does not control also affect prices, including weather, demand, shortages, export prices, and governmental policies. Market prices for alcohol produced in the U.S. are also influenced by the supply of and demand for imported alcohol. Imported alcohol, including sugarcane alcohol imported from Brazil also competes with ICP’s domestic alcohol production. Consequently, ICP’s operating results may fluctuate substantially with increases in corn or natural gas input prices or decreases in alcohol, and distillers grains and, thus, ICP’s results of operations may be adversely affected by such activity. Narrow spreads between alcohol and corn prices would adversely affect ICP's results of operations, cash flows and financial position.
Compliance and excise tax risks associated with operations involving alcohol. The Company’s subsidiaries, ICP and Gateway Terminals LLC, are involved in the production, shipment and sale of alcohol products for a variety of industrial and non-industrial uses, with customers located in the United States and elsewhere. Such activities fall within the jurisdiction of certain alcohol control and excise taxation agencies, most notably including a Bureau within the Treasury Department - the Alcohol & Tobacco Tax & Trade Bureau (“TTB”). Failure to adhere to the regulations and policies of TTB and similar state regulatory agencies could expose these subsidiaries to excise tax liabilities arising from the production, shipment, or sale of alcohol. In addition, failure to adhere to such regulations and policies could give rise to adverse enforcement action by TTB and similar state regulatory agencies. Remedies that such government agencies might seek to pursue as a result of compliance failures could include: the power to suspend or revoke government approvals necessary to continue producing, shipping, or selling alcohol; the assessment of excise taxes, interest, and tax penalties; and criminal prosecution of the subsidiaries and/or their officials. Such remedies could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial results.
The Company’s insurance coverage may be inadequate to protect it from the liabilities that could arise in its businesses. Although the Company maintains insurance coverage against the risks related to its businesses, risks may arise for which the Company may not be insured. Claims covered by insurance are subject to deductibles, the aggregate amount of which could be material. Insurance policies are also subject to compliance with certain conditions, the failure of which could lead to a denial of coverage as to a particular claim or the voiding of a particular insurance policy. There also can be no assurance that existing insurance coverage can be renewed at commercially reasonable rates or that available coverage will be adequate to cover future claims. If a loss occurs that is partially or completely uninsured, the Company could be exposed to substantial liability.
There are risks associated with the Company’s Seassurance business. The Company’s subsidiary, Seassurance Ltd., provides insurance-related marine transportation compliance products, including Certificates of Financial Responsibility ("COFRs") and the provision of International Carrier Bonds ("ICBs"), primarily to owners and operators of vessels calling at ports in the United States and traversing U.S. waters. Guarantees to support COFRs are provided to enable customers to demonstrate financial security required by U.S. Coast Guard regulations for such vessels to trade in U.S. waters. As provider of these guarantees, Seassurance undertakes that any liabilities of the customer under the OPA 90 and/or CERCLA will be satisfied up to the liability limits applicable to the vessel under these statutes. Seassurance typically acquires rights of recovery from the insurer for payments made and exposure under the guarantees, subject to a retained risk of US$3.0 million in respect of each incident. Although

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shipowners’ liabilities under OPA and CERCLA traditionally have been satisfied by P&I insurers, and guarantees to support COFRs have rarely, if ever, been called upon, the risk exists that such liabilities may not be met by P&I insurers and, thus, could exceed the US$3.0 million level of retained risk. There is also a risk of multiple exposures for Seassurance if a series of such incidents were to occur.
The Company’s operations are subject to certain foreign currency, interest rate, fixed-income, equity and commodity price risks. The Company is exposed to certain foreign currency, interest rate, fixed-income, equity and commodity price risks and although some of these risks may be hedged, fluctuations could impact the Company’s financial position and its results of operations. For instance, a strengthening of the U.S. dollar results in higher prices for U.S. exports, which may adversely affect Inland River Services, Shipping Services and ICP's operating results. The Company has, and anticipates that it will continue to have, contracts denominated in foreign currencies. It is often not practicable for the Company to effectively hedge the entire risk of significant changes in currency rates during a contract period. The Company’s financial position and its results of operations have been negatively impacted for certain periods and positively impacted for other periods, and may continue to be affected to a material extent by the impact of foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations. The Company’s financial position and its results of operations may also be affected by the cost of hedging activities that the Company undertakes. The Company holds a large proportion of its net assets in cash equivalents and short-term investments, including a variety of public and private debt and equity instruments. Such investments subject the Company to risks generally inherent in the capital markets. Given the relatively high proportion of the Company’s liquid assets relative to its overall size, its financial position and its results of operations may be materially affected by the results of the Company’s capital management and investment activities and the risks associated with those activities. Volatility in the financial markets and overall economic uncertainty also increase the risk that the actual amounts realized in the future on the Company’s debt and equity instruments could differ significantly from the fair values currently assigned to them. In addition, changes in interest rates may have an adverse impact on the Company’s financial position and its results of operations.
The Company’s inability to attract and retain qualified personnel could have an adverse effect on its business. Attracting and retaining skilled personnel across all of the Company’s business segments is an important factor in its future success. The market for the personnel employed is highly competitive and the Company cannot be certain that it will be successful in attracting and retaining qualified personnel in the future.
The failure to successfully complete construction or conversion of the Company’s vessels, repairs, maintenance or routine drydockings on schedule and on budget could adversely affect the Company’s financial position and its results of operations. From time to time, the Company may have a number of vessels under conversion and may plan to construct or convert other vessels in response to current and future market conditions. The Company also routinely engages shipyards to drydock vessels for regulatory compliance and to provide repair and maintenance. Construction and conversion projects and drydockings are subject to risks of delay and cost overruns, resulting from shortages of equipment, lack of shipyard availability, unforeseen engineering problems, work stoppages, weather interference, unanticipated cost increases, inability to obtain necessary certifications and approvals and shortages of materials or skilled labor. A significant delay in either construction or drydockings could have a material adverse effect on contract commitments and revenues with respect to vessels under construction, conversion or undergoing drydockings. Significant cost overruns or delays for vessels under construction, conversion or retrofit could also adversely affect the Company’s financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
A violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act ("FCPA") may adversely affect the Company’s business and operations. In order to effectively compete in certain foreign jurisdictions, the Company seeks to establish joint ventures with local operators or strategic partners. As a U.S. corporation, the Company is subject to the regulations imposed by the FCPA, which generally prohibits U.S. companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or maintaining business. The Company has adopted stringent procedures to enforce compliance with the FCPA, but it may be held liable for actions taken by its strategic or local partners even though these partners may not be subject to the FCPA. Any determination that the Company has violated the FCPA could have a material adverse effect on its business, financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
An outbreak of any contagious disease, such as Ebola, H1N1 Flu or the Zika Virus , may adversely affect the Company’s business and operations. The outbreak of diseases, such as Ebola, H1N1 Flu, commonly referred to as Swine Flu, or the Zika Virus, has in the past curtailed and may in the future curtail travel to and from certain countries, or geographic regions. Restrictions on travel to and from these countries or other regions due to additional incidences for diseases, such as Swine Flu and other communicable diseases, could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
There are risks associated with climate change and environmental regulations. Governments around the world have, in recent years, placed increasing attention on matters affecting the environment and this could lead to new laws or regulations pertaining to climate change, carbon emissions or energy use that in turn could result in a reduction in demand for hydrocarbon-based fuel. Governments could also pass laws or regulations encouraging or mandating the use of alternative energy sources such as wind power and solar energy, which may reduce demand for oil and natural gas and therefore the services provided by the

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Company. In addition, new environmental or emissions control laws or regulations may require an increase in the Company's operating costs and/or in the Company's capital spending for additional equipment to comply with such requirements and could also result in a reduction in revenues due to downtime required for the installation of such equipment. Such initiatives could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
The Company's business and stock price may be adversely affected if its internal control over financial reporting is not effective. Under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and rules promulgated by the SEC, companies are required to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of their internal control over financial reporting. As part of this process, the Company is required to document and test its internal control over financial reporting; management is required to assess and issue a report concerning the Company's internal control over financial reporting; and the Company's independent registered certified public accounting firm is required to attest on the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting. The Company’s internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements because of its inherent limitations, including the possibility of human error, the circumvention or overriding of controls, or fraud. Even effective internal controls can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements. The existence of a material weakness could result in errors in the Company's financial statements that could result in a restatement of financial statements, which could cause the Company to fail to meet its reporting obligations, lead to a loss of investor confidence and have a negative impact on the trading price of the Company's common stock.
The Company relies on information technology, and if it is unable to protect against service interruptions, data corruption, cyber-based attacks or network security breaches, its operations could be disrupted and its business could be negatively affected. The Company relies on information technology networks and systems to process, transmit and store electronic and financial information; to capture knowledge of its business; to coordinate its business across its operation bases; and to communicate within the Company and with customers, suppliers, partners and other third-parties. These information technology systems, some of which are managed by third parties, may be susceptible to damage, disruptions or shutdowns, hardware or software failures, power outages, computer viruses, cyber attacks, telecommunication failures, user errors or catastrophic events. The Company's information technology systems are becoming increasingly integrated, so damage, disruption or shutdown to the system could result in a more widespread impact. If the Company's information technology systems suffer severe damage, disruption or shutdown, and its business continuity plans do not effectively resolve the issues in a timely manner, the Company's operations could be disrupted and its business could be negatively affected. In addition, cyber attacks could lead to potential unauthorized access and disclosure of confidential information, and data loss and corruption. There is no assurance that the Company will not experience these service interruptions or cyber attacks in the future. Further, as the methods of cyber attacks continue to evolve, the Company may be required to expend additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate any vulnerabilities to cyber attacks.
Significant exercises of stock options could adversely affect the market price of the Company's Common Stock. As of December 31, 2015, the Company had 17,154,900 shares of Common Stock issued and outstanding; however, the total number of shares of the Company's Common Stock issued and outstanding does not include shares reserved for issuance under the Company’s stock plans, including upon the exercise of options issued under such plans, or shares issuable upon the exchange or conversion of the Company's convertible debt. The exercise of outstanding options, the issuance of shares reserved for issuance under the Company’s Stock Plans and the conversion of convertible debt instruments could adversely affect the price of the Company’s Common Stock, will reduce the percentage of Common Stock held by the Company's current stockholders and may cause its current stockholders to suffer significant dilution, which may adversely affect the market.
The Company's ability to access capital markets could be limited. From time to time, the Company may need to access the capital markets to obtain long-term and short-term financing. However, the Company's ability to access the capital markets for long-term financing could be limited by among other things, oil and gas prices, its existing capital structure, its credit ratings and the health of the shipping, response and overall oil and gas industry. In addition, many of the factors that affect the Company's ability to access the capital markets, such as the liquidity of the overall capital markets and the state of the economy and oil and gas industry, are outside of the Company's control. To the extent required to do so, no assurance can be given that the Company will be able to access to the capital markets on acceptable terms.
ITEM 1B.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

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ITEM 2.
PROPERTIES
Offshore support vessels, inland river towboats and barges, product tankers, harbor and offshore towboats and barges, RORO vessels and barges, terminals and manufacturing and servicing facilities are the principal physical properties owned by the Company and are more fully described in "Offshore Marine Services," "Inland River Services," "Shipping Services" and "Illinois Corn Processing" in "Item 1. Business."
ITEM 3.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
On July 20, 2010, two individuals purporting to represent a class commenced a civil action in the Civil District Court for the Parish of Orleans in the State of Louisiana, John Wunstell, Jr. and Kelly Blanchard v. BP, et al., No. 2010-7437 (Division K) (the “Wunstell Action”), in which they assert, among other theories, that Mr. Wunstell suffered injuries as a result of his exposure to certain noxious fumes and chemicals in connection with the provision of remediation, containment, and response services by ORM during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill response and clean-up in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. The action now is part of the overall multi-district litigation, In re Oil Spill by the Oil Rig "Deepwater Horizon" in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico on April 20, 2010, MDL No. 2179 filed in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana ("MDL"). The complaint also seeks to establish a “class-wide court-supervised medical monitoring program” for all individuals “participating in BP's Deepwater Horizon Vessels of Opportunity Program and/or Horizon Response Program” who allegedly experienced injuries similar to those of Mr. Wunstell. The Company believes this lawsuit has no merit and will continue to vigorously defend the action and pursuant to contractual agreements with the responsible party, the responsible party has agreed, subject to certain potential limitations, to indemnify and defend ORM in connection with the Wunstell Action and claims asserted in the MDL, discussed further below. Although the Company is unable to estimate the potential exposure, if any, resulting from this matter, the Company does not expect it will have a material effect on the Company's consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
On December 15, 2010, NRC, a subsidiary of the Company prior to the SES Business Transaction, and ORM were named as defendants in one of the several consolidated “master complaints” that have been filed in the overall MDL. The “B3” master complaint naming ORM and NRC asserts various claims on behalf of a putative class against multiple defendants concerning the clean-up activities generally, and the use of dispersants specifically. By court order, the Wunstell Action has been stayed as a result of the filing of the referenced master complaint. The Company believes that the claims asserted against ORM and NRC in the master complaint have no merit and on February 28, 2011, ORM and NRC moved to dismiss all claims against them in the master complaint on legal grounds. On September 30, 2011, the Court granted in part and denied in part the motion to dismiss that ORM and NRC had filed (an amended decision was issued on October 4, 2011 that corrected several grammatical errors and non-substantive oversights in the original order). Although the Court refused to dismiss the referenced master complaint in its entirety at that time, the Court did recognize the validity of the “derivative immunity” and “implied preemption” arguments that ORM and NRC advanced and directed ORM and NRC to (i) conduct limited discovery to develop evidence to support those arguments and (ii) then re-assert the arguments. The Court did, however, dismiss all state-law claims and certain other claims that had been asserted in the referenced master complaint, and dismissed the claims of all plaintiffs that have failed to allege a legally-sufficient injury. A schedule for limited discovery and motion practice was established by the Court and, in accordance with that schedule, ORM and NRC filed for summary judgment re-asserting their derivative immunity and implied preemption arguments on May 18, 2012. Those motions were argued on July 13, 2012 and are still pending decision. On July 17, 2014, the Court issued a pretrial order that established a protocol for disclosures clarifying the basis for the “B3” claims asserted against the Clean-Up Responder Defendants, including ORM and NRC, in the MDL. Under this protocol, plaintiffs who satisfy certain criteria and believe they have specific evidence in support of their claims, including that any Clean-Up Responder Defendant(s) failed to act pursuant to the authority and direction of the federal government in conducting Deepwater Horizon oil spill remediation and clean-up operations, had to submit a sworn statement or face dismissal. Plaintiffs’ deadline to serve such sworn statements in support of their claims was September 22, 2014, with the exception of several Plaintiffs who were granted an extension until October 10, 2014. On November 14, 2014, the Clean-Up Responder Defendants and the Plaintiffs’ Steering Committee ("PSC") in the MDL submitted a joint report to the Court regarding claimants’ compliance with the pretrial order. In this joint report, the parties (i) explained how they complied with the notice requirements of the Court’s July 17, 2014 pretrial order, (ii) noted that they had received 102 sworn statements in connection with this pretrial order, and (iii) provided the Court with an assessment of the sworn statements received. An additional sworn statement was received after the joint report was submitted. On January 7, 2016, the Court issued an Order to Show Cause (“OSC”) as to the B3 claims against the Clean-Up Responder Defendants, including ORM and NRC. The OSC ordered any plaintiff(s) opposed to the Court entering the proposed Order & Reasons (“O&R”) attached to the OSC to show cause, in writing, on or before January 28, 2016 why the Court should not dismiss their B3 claim(s) with prejudice for the reasons set forth in the O&R. The O&R addressed the pending summary judgment motions and stated, among other things, why the Clean-Up Responder Defendants are entitled to derivative immunity under the Clean Water Act and discretionary function immunity under the Federal Tort Claims Act, and why plaintiffs’ claims are preempted by the implied conflict preemption doctrine. The O&R also discussed the results of the protocol delineated in the Court’s July 17, 2014 pretrial order and concluded with the dismissal of all but eleven plaintiffs’ B3 claims against the Clean-Up Responder Defendants with prejudice. Following the issuance

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of the OSC, ORM and NRC complied with the same notice requirements delineated in the July 17, 2014 pretrial order and, along with the PSC, submitted a joint certification to that effect on January 15, 2016. Eight individual plaintiffs submitted responses to the OSC by the January 28, 2016 deadline, and the Clean-Up Responder Defendants submitted a response thereto on February 4, 2016. On February 16, 2016, the Court issued an order overruling the objections relayed in the eight individual Plaintiffs’ responses to the OSC, and then entered a dismissal order nearly identical to the O&R. Accordingly, the final Order & Reasons entered on February 16, 2016 dismissed all but eleven B3 claims against ORM and NRC with prejudice, whether by joinder in the master complaint, individual complaint, or otherwise. The Company is evaluating how this ruling will impact the individual civil actions discussed below. Further, the Court will now determine next steps in connection with the remaining B3 claims, which include several individual civil actions discussed herein, including the Wunstell Action. In addition to the indemnity provided to ORM, pursuant to contractual agreements with the responsible party, the responsible party has agreed, subject to certain potential limitations, to indemnify and defend ORM and NRC in connection with these claims in the MDL. Although the Company is unable to estimate the potential exposure, if any, resulting from this matter, the Company does not expect it will have a material effect on the Company's consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Subsequent to the filing of the referenced master complaint, ten additional individual civil actions have been filed in or removed to the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana concerning the clean-up activities generally, which name the Company, ORM and/or NRC as defendants or third-party defendants and are part of the overall MDL. By court order, all of these additional individuals' cases have been stayed until further notice. On April 8, 2011, ORM was named as a defendant in Johnson Bros. Corporation of Louisiana v. BP, PLC, et al., No. 2:11-CV-00781 (E.D. La.), which is a suit by an individual business seeking damages allegedly caused by a delay on a construction project alleged to have resulted from the clean-up operations. On April 13, 2011, the Company was named as a defendant in Mason v. Seacor Marine, LLC, No. 2:11-CV-00826 (E.D. La.), an action in which plaintiff, a former employee, alleges sustaining personal injuries in connection with responding to the explosion and fire, but also in the months thereafter in connection with the clean-up of oil and dispersants while a member of the crew of the M/V Seacor Vanguard. Although the case was subject to the MDL Court’s stay of individual proceedings, the employee moved to sever his case from the MDL on July 16, 2012, which the Court denied on March 5, 2013. The employee filed a motion asking the Court to reconsider, which was denied on May 3, 2013, and the employee filed a Notice of Appeal to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit (“Fifth Circuit”) on May 22, 2013. On July 24, 2013, the Company filed a motion to dismiss for lack of appellate jurisdiction, which was granted on August 16, 2013. The same Company employee has also brought a claim in the M/V Seacor Vanguard vessel’s limitation action in the MDL which relates to any actions that may have been taken by vessels owned by the Company to extinguish the fire. On October 20, 2014, the Company moved for summary judgment, seeking dismissal with prejudice of all of the Company employee’s claims in the MDL in light of the Court’s prior rulings. On May 22, 2015, the employee filed an opposition to the Company's motion as well as a motion to be recognized as an opt-out plaintiff or extend the opt-out deadline in connection with the below-referenced Medical Settlement, and on May 29, 2015, the Company filed a reply brief in further support of its motion. On June 10, 2015, the Court granted the Company's motion for summary judgment, dismissing all of the employee's claims against the Company and/or the M/V Seacor Vanguard with prejudice, and denied the employee's May 22, 2015 motion regarding his opt-out position in connection with the Medical Settlement. Final judgments for all of the employee's claims were issued by the Court on June 17, 2015, and the employee filed his Notice of Appeal on July 7, 2015. Following the docketing of the employee’s appeals with the Fifth Circuit, the Company filed a motion to consolidate these appeals, which was granted on August 21, 2015. The employee filed his appellant brief in the consolidated appeal on October 23, 2015, the Company submitted its appellee brief on November 25, 2015, and the employee filed his reply brief on January 4, 2016. Oral argument has been tentatively scheduled for the week of April 4, 2016. On April 15, 2011, ORM and NRC were named as defendants in James and Krista Pearson v. BP Exploration & Production, Inc. ("BP Exploration"), et al., No. 2:11-CV-00863 (E.D. La.), which is a suit by a husband and wife who allegedly participated in the clean-up effort and are seeking damages for personal injury, property damage to their boat, and amounts allegedly due under contract. On April 15, 2011, ORM and NRC were named as defendants in Thomas Edward Black v. BP Exploration, et al., No. 2:11-CV-00867 (E.D. La.), which is a suit by an individual who is seeking damages for lost income because he allegedly could not find work in the fishing industry after the oil spill. On April 20, 2011, a complaint was filed in Darnell Alexander, et al. v. BP, PLC, et al., No. 2:11-CV-00951 (E.D. La.) on behalf of 117 individual plaintiffs that sought to adopt the allegations made in the referenced master complaint against ORM and NRC (and the other defendants). Plaintiffs in this matter have since been granted leave to amend their complaint to include 410 additional individual plaintiffs. On October 3, 2012, ORM and NRC were served with a Rule 14(c) Third-Party Complaint by Jambon Supplier II, L.L.C. and Jambon Marine Holdings L.L.C. in their Limitation of Liability action, In the Matter of Jambon Supplier II, L.L.C., et al., No. 2:12-CV-00426 (E.D. La.). This Third-Party Complaint alleges that if claimant David Dinwiddie, who served as a clean-up crewmember aboard the M/V JAMBON SUPPLIER II vessel during the clean-up efforts, was injured as a result of his exposure to dispersants and chemicals during the course and scope of his employment, then said injuries were caused by the third-party defendants. On November 25, 2012, ORM was named as a defendant in Victoria Sanchez v. American Pollution Control Corp. et al., No. 2:12-CV-00164 (E.D. La.), a maritime suit filed by an individual who allegedly participated in the clean-up effort and sustained personal injuries during the course of such employment. On December 17, 2012, the Court unsealed a False Claims Act lawsuit naming ORM as a defendant, Dillon v. BP, PLC et al., No. 2:12-CV-00987 (E.D. La.), which is a suit by an individual seeking damages and penalties arising from alleged false reports and claims made to the federal government with respect to the

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amount of oil burned and dispersed during the clean-up. The federal government has declined to intervene in this suit. On April 8, 2013, the Company, ORM, and NRC were named as defendants in William and Dianna Fitzgerald v. BP Exploration et al., No. 2:13-CV-00650 (E.D. La.), which is a suit by a husband and wife whose son allegedly participated in the clean-up effort and became ill as a result of his exposure to oil and dispersants. Finally, on April 17, 2013, ORM was named as a defendant in Danos et al. v. BP America Production Co. et al., No. 2:13-CV-03747 (removed to E.D. La.), which is a suit by eight individuals seeking damages for dispersant exposure either as a result of their work during clean-up operations or as a result of their residence in the Gulf. The Company is unable to estimate the potential exposure, if any, resulting from these matters but believes they are without merit and does not expect that they will have a material effect on its consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
On February 18, 2011, Triton Asset Leasing GmbH, Transocean Holdings LLC, Transocean Offshore Deepwater Drilling Inc., and Transocean Deepwater Inc. (collectively “Transocean”) named ORM and NRC as third-party defendants in a Rule 14(c) Third-Party Complaint in Transocean's own Limitation of Liability Act action, which is part of the overall MDL, tendering to ORM and NRC the claims in the referenced master complaint that have already been asserted against ORM and NRC. Transocean, Cameron International Corporation (“Cameron”), Halliburton Energy Services, Inc., and M-I L.L.C. (“M-I”) also filed cross-claims against ORM and NRC for contribution and tort indemnity should they be found liable for any damages in Transocean's Limitation of Liability Act action and ORM and NRC asserted counterclaims against those same parties for identical relief. Weatherford U.S., L.P. and Weatherford International, Inc. (collectively “Weatherford”) had also filed cross-claims against ORM and NRC, but moved to voluntarily dismiss these cross-claims without prejudice on February 8, 2013. The Court granted Weatherford's motion that same day. The remainder of the aforementioned cross-claims in Transocean's limitation action remain pending, although the Court has found Cameron and M-I to be not liable in connection with the Deepwater Horizon incident and resultant oil spill and dismissed these parties from the MDL. As indicated above, the Company is unable to estimate the potential exposure, if any, resulting from these actions but believes they are without merit and does not expect that these matters will have a material effect on its consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
On November 16, 2012, 668 individuals who served as beach clean-up workers in Escambia County, Florida during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill response commenced a civil action in the Circuit Court for the First Judicial Circuit of Florida, in and for Escambia County, Abney et al. v. Plant Performance Services, LLC et al., No. 2012-CA-002947, in which they allege, among other things, that ORM and other defendants engaged in the contamination of Florida waters and beaches in violation of Florida Statutes Chapter 376 and injured the plaintiffs by exposing them to dispersants during the course and scope of their employment. The case was removed to the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Florida on January 13, 2013, Abney et al. v. Plant Performance Services, LLC et al., No. 3:13-CV-00024 (N.D. Fla.), and on January 16, 2013, the United States Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation (“JPML”) issued a Conditional Transfer Order (“CTO”) transferring the case to the MDL, subject to any timely-filed notice of objection from the plaintiffs. Upon receipt of a notice of objection from the plaintiffs, a briefing schedule was set by the JPML, and so a stay of proceedings and suspension of deadlines was sought and obtained by the Court in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Florida. Following briefing before the JPML, the case was transferred to the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana and consolidated with the MDL on April 2, 2013. On April 22, 2013, a companion case to this matter was filed in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Florida, Abood et al. v. Plant Performance Services, LLC et al., No. 3:13-CV-00284 (N.D. Fla.), which alleges identical allegations against the same parties but names an additional 174 plaintiffs, all of whom served as clean-up workers in various Florida counties during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill response. A CTO was issued by the JPML on May 2, 2013, no objection was filed by the plaintiffs, and the case was transferred to the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana and consolidated with the MDL on May 10, 2013. By court order, both of these matters have been stayed until further notice. The Company is unable to estimate the potential exposure, if any, resulting from these matters but believes they are without merit and does not expect that these matters will have a material effect on its consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Separately, on March 2, 2012, the Court announced that BP Exploration and BP America Production Company (“BP America”) (collectively “BP”) and the plaintiffs had reached an agreement on the terms of two proposed class action settlements that will resolve, among other things, plaintiffs' economic loss claims and clean-up related claims against BP. The parties filed their proposed settlement agreements on April 18, 2012 along with motions seeking preliminary approval of the settlements. The Court held a hearing on April 25, 2012 to consider those motions and preliminarily approved both settlements on May 2, 2012. A final fairness hearing took place on November 8, 2012. The Court granted final approval to the Economic and Property Damages Class Action Settlement ("E&P Settlement") on December 21, 2012, and granted final approval to the Medical Benefits Class Action Settlement ("Medical Settlement") on January 11, 2013. Both class action settlements were appealed to the Fifth Circuit. The Fifth Circuit affirmed the MDL Court’s decision concerning the E&P Settlement on January 10, 2014, and also affirmed the MDL Court’s decision concerning the interpretation of the E&P Settlement with respect to business economic loss claims on March 3, 2014. The appeal of the Medical Settlement, on the other hand, was voluntarily dismissed and the Medical Settlement became effective on February 12, 2014. The deadline for submitting claims in both settlements have passed. Although neither the Company, ORM, nor NRC are parties to the settlement agreements, the Company, ORM, and NRC are listed as released parties on the releases accompanying both settlement agreements. Consequently, class members who did not file timely requests for

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exclusion will be barred from pursuing economic loss, property damage, personal injury, medical monitoring, and/or other released claims against the Company, ORM, and NRC. The Company believes these settlements have reduced the Company's and ORM's potential exposure, if any, from some of the pending actions described above, and continues to evaluate the settlements' impacts on these cases. The Company is unable to estimate the potential exposure, if any, resulting from these matters but believes they are without merit and does not expect that these matters will have a material effect on its consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
ORM recently settled three collective action lawsuits that asserted failure to pay overtime with respect to individuals who provided service on the Deepwater Horizon oil spill response under the Fair Labor Standards Act (“FLSA”). These cases: Himmerite et al. v. O'Brien's Response Management Inc. et al. (E.D. La., Case No.: 2:12-cv-01533) (the “Himmerite Action”); Dennis Prejean v. O'Brien's Response Management Inc. (E.D. La., Case No.: 2:12-cv-01045) (the “Prejean Action”); and Baylor Singleton et. al. v. O'Brien's Response Management Inc. et. al. (E.D. La., Case No.: 2:12-cv-01716) (the “Singleton Action”) were brought in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana on behalf of certain individuals who worked on the Deepwater Horizon oil spill response. In the Singleton action, on February 13, 2014, the parties reached a full and final settlement agreement with respect to all of the Plaintiffs' individual claims for an undisclosed immaterial amount. On April 11, 2014, the Court approved the parties’ settlement and dismissed the Singleton Action with prejudice in its entirety, which extinguished the tolling of claims that had been in place for absent putative plaintiffs.
In the Prejean action, the parties reached a full and final settlement agreement on November 6, 2014 with respect to all of the Plaintiffs’ individual and collective action claims for an undisclosed immaterial amount. The Court approved the settlement and dismissed the Prejean Action with prejudice in its entirety on November 19, 2014.
In the Himmerite action, the parties reached a full and final settlement agreement on February 19, 2015 with respect to all of the Plaintiffs' claims for an undisclosed immaterial amount. The Court approved the settlement and dismissed the Himmerite Action with prejudice in its entirety on March 25, 2015, which also extinguished the tolling of claims which had been in place for absent putative plaintiffs.
In the course of the Company's business, it may agree to indemnify the counterparty to an agreement. If the indemnified party makes a successful claim for indemnification, the Company would be required to reimburse that party in accordance with the terms of the indemnification agreement. Indemnification agreements generally are subject to threshold amounts, specified claim periods and other restrictions and limitations.
In connection with the SES Business Transaction, the Company remains contingently liable for certain obligations, including potential liabilities relating to work performed in connection with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill response. Pursuant to the agreement governing the sale, the Company's potential liability to the purchaser may not exceed the consideration received by the Company for the SES Business Transaction. The Company is currently indemnified under contractual agreements with BP for the potential liabilities relating to work performed in connection with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill response.
In the normal course of its business, the Company becomes involved in various other litigation matters including, among other things, claims by third parties for alleged property damages and personal injuries. Management has used estimates in determining the Company's potential exposure to these matters and has recorded reserves in its financial statements related thereto where appropriate. It is possible that a change in the Company's estimates of that exposure could occur, but the Company does not expect such changes in estimated costs would have a material effect on the Company's consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
ITEM 4.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.

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EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT
Officers of SEACOR serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors. The name, age and offices held by each of the executive officers of SEACOR as of December 31, 2015 were as follows:
Name
 
Age
 
Position
Charles Fabrikant
 
71
 
Executive Chairman of the Board, President and Chief Executive Officer, and a director of SEACOR and several of its subsidiaries. Effective February 23, 2015, Mr. Fabrikant was appointed President and Chief Executive Officer a position he had resigned from in September 2010 when he was designated Executive Chairman of the Board. Mr. Fabrikant is a Director of Diamond Offshore Drilling, Inc., a contract oil and gas driller, and Hawker Pacific Airservices, Limited, an aviation sales product support company. In addition, he is President of Fabrikant International Corporation, a privately owned corporation engaged in marine investments. Fabrikant International Corporation may be deemed an affiliate of SEACOR.
Matthew Cenac
 
50
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of SEACOR since February 23, 2015 and, from August 2014 to February 2015, was Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer and, from September 2005 to August 2014, was Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer. From June 2003, when he joined SEACOR, to August 2005, Mr. Cenac was Corporate Controller of SEACOR. In addition, Mr. Cenac is an officer and director of certain SEACOR subsidiaries.
Eric Fabrikant
 
35
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of SEACOR since February 23, 2015 and, from May 2009 through February 2105, was Vice President of SEACOR. From 2004 through May 2009, Mr. Fabrikant held various positions at Nabors Industries. In addition, Mr. Fabrikant is an officer and director of certain SEACOR subsidiaries.
John Gellert
 
45
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of SEACOR since February 23, 2015 and, from May 2004 to February 2015 was Senior Vice President of SEACOR. In July 2005, Mr. Gellert was appointed President of SEACOR's Offshore Marine Services' segment, a capacity in which he still serves. Since June 1992, when Mr. Gellert joined SEACOR, until July 2005, he had various financial, analytical, chartering and marketing roles within SEACOR. In addition, Mr Gellert is an offic